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Institute for Psychological Science publications

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  • Papaloukas, P., Quincey, K. & Williamson, I. (2017). Venturing into the visual voice: combining photos and interviews in phenomenological inquiry around marginalisation and chronic illness Qualitative Research in Psychology DOI:10.1080/14780887.2017.1329364

  • Coulthard, H. & Thakker, D. (2015). Enjoyment of tactile play is associated with lower food neophobia in preschool children. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition & Dietetics, 115(7), 1134-1140.

  • Elqayam, S., Thompson, V.A., Wilkinson, M.R, Evans, J.St.B.T., & Over, D.E. (2015). Deontic Introduction: A Theory of Inference from Is to Ought. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 41(5), 1516-1532.

  • O’Reilly, M. Bowlay-Williams, J., Svirydzenka, N. & Vostanis, P. (2016). A qualitative exploration of how adopted children and their parents conceptualise mental health difficulties. Adoption and Fostering, 40(1), 60-76.

  • Hadlington, L.J. and Scase, M.O. (2018) End-user frustrations and failures in digital technology: exploring the role of Fear of Missing Out, Internet addiction and personality. Heliyon, 4, e00872.

  • Scase, M.,Marandure, B., Hancox, J., Kreiner, K., Hanke, S. and Kropf, J. (2017) Development of and adherence to a computer-based gamified environment designed to promote health and wellbeing in older people with mild cognitive impairment. In: Health Informatics Meets eHealth (edited by D. Hayn and G. Schreier). Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 236, pp. 348-355

  • Food neophobia and the evaluation of novel foods in adults; the sensory, emotional, association (SEA) model of the decision to taste a novel food
    Food neophobia and the evaluation of novel foods in adults; the sensory, emotional, association (SEA) model of the decision to taste a novel food Coulthard, H; Aldridge, V; Fox, G Reluctance to eat new foods, known as food neophobia, is well researched in children but not adults. Two studies were carried out to understand the emotional, sensory, and cognitive factors associated with food neophobia in an adult sample, and to propose a preliminary explanation of the decision to taste a novel food named the SEA model (Sensory, Emotional, cognitive Association model). Participants were recruited through opportunity sampling of a university population in the Leicester region of the UK. Study one (n = 534) was a cross sectional study examining associations between self-report measures of food neophobia, emotional variables and sensory variables. In study two (n = 160), participants completed an online cognitive evaluation of 7 images of novel fruits and vegetables, rating perceived familiarity, categorisation as fruit or vegetable, cognitive associations based on appearance (what does the food look like), liking of any associated foods, and expected liking of the novel food. In study 1 it was found that tactile sensitivity and disgust sensitivity were the main sensory and emotional variables associated with food neophobia. In study 2, it was found that food neophobia and lower expected liking of novel foods were associated with disgust sensitivity, associating the novel foods with disliked foods, and lower perceived familiarity. The SEA model further proposes that underlying tendencies and automatic reactions to foods, combine with cognitive associations based on negative memories and negative beliefs about tasting new foods, to create expected disliking of a food and a decreased likelihood that it will be tried. Further work is needed to fully test the SEA model of the decision to taste a novel food, in particular to further examine how associations are formed. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • "Syria is Our Mom, UK is Like Aunty” The Psychosocial Experiences of Acculturation in Syrian Refugees
    "Syria is Our Mom, UK is Like Aunty” The Psychosocial Experiences of Acculturation in Syrian Refugees Goodman, Simon; Asmal-Lee, Mujahid; Liebling, Helen In response to the Syrian Civil War, the British Government pledged to resettle 20,000 Syrian refugees by 2020. However, refugee integration can be traumatic. Existing literature has gaps encompassing the ‘lived experiences’ of Syrian refugees specifically. This study used semi-structured interviews and Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis to explore six Syrian refugees’ acculturation in the UK. Three superordinate themes were developed: Living with Loss, Experiencing a New Life, and The Dissonance of Integration: Belonging and Not Belonging. Syrian refugees’ losses impacted their integration. Arrival was experienced as an overwhelming re-birth for some, yet despite their new life, refugees’ integration could not escape past traumas. Syrian refugees’ integration encompassed degrees of belonging, racism, and Islamophobia. Experiences were affected by nurture, support, and connection with state structures, the host society and other refugees. Services and professionals would benefit from understanding refugees’ needs through cultural curiosity, sensitivity, and trust, to avoid exacerbating trauma. Policy recommendations include supporting refugees into meaningful employment and legal support for family reunification. Refugee voices and expertise should be considered in all aspects of integration. Findings have implications for models of integration particularly regarding the role of identity, employment, and how refugees’ experiences relate to what models view as ‘integration’. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link
  • “Spice Was Made, by the Devil Himself”: A Thematic Analysis of the Experience of an Addiction to Synthetic Cannabinoids
    “Spice Was Made, by the Devil Himself”: A Thematic Analysis of the Experience of an Addiction to Synthetic Cannabinoids Marandure, B. N.; Wilson, Amanda; Mhizha, Samson Synthetic cannabinoids (SC) are the most common type of new psychoactive substances used predominantly as a replacement for cannabis. There is a wealth of literature on the negative effects experienced by users of SC. However, there is a paucity of research on the experience of addiction to SC from the users’ perspectives. The present study qualitatively explored the experience of addiction to SC. Online blog entries detailing the experience of SC addiction were analysed using thematic analysis. Users reported being stuck in a cycle of addiction which was composed of addiction hallmarks. They also experienced a range of significant physical, mental health and psychosocial problems. Suicidal ideation was also reported, with potential for its occurrence during withdrawal, due to shame of being addicted, and as the only way to stop the addiction cycle. Additionally, both psychotic and cognitive symptoms were reported to persist following cessation, enhancing current understanding of long-term SC effects. Therefore, users require both clinical and psychosocial support for these issues, most notably suicidal ideation. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • The values you endorse set the body you see: The protective effect of intrinsic life goals on men's body dissatisfaction
    The values you endorse set the body you see: The protective effect of intrinsic life goals on men's body dissatisfaction Ku, Lisbeth; Newby, Charis; Moldes, Olaya; Zaroff, Charles M.; Wu, Anise M. S. The mass media portrayal of a muscular body type ideal has been increasingly tied to men's body image dissatisfaction. We examined the role of self-determination theory's intrinsic life goals within this body image ideal and its potential as a moderator of this dissatisfaction. We first tested the moderating effect of intrinsic life goals on the link between magazine consumption and body image dissatisfaction via an online questionnaire (Study 1; N = 826), then experimentally manipulated these goals and exposure to images of muscular male models (Study 2; N = 150). A robust protective effect of intrinsic goals on body image satisfaction was observed – the relationship between magazine consumption and body image dissatisfaction was only significant among individuals with a lower level of intrinsic life goal orientation. When participants' intrinsic goals were momentarily heightened, they reported significantly less body image dissatisfaction, compared to those not receiving a strengthening of these goals. The results are the first to find a protective effect of intrinsic life goals on men's body image, and have important implications for intervention. open access article
  • The right tool for the job: Evaluating police experiences of a pilot tool for responding to stalking
    The right tool for the job: Evaluating police experiences of a pilot tool for responding to stalking Bleakley, Paul; Frost, Stewart; Short, Emma; Bradbury, Paula; Martellozzo, Elena This research aimed to evaluate the rollout of a pilot Stalking Screen Tool (SST) across two police forces in southern England (Surrey and Sussex Police). The mixed-method approach to this evaluation consisted of several stages which included the analysis of existing crime data; conducting a survey (N = 102) of officers who were part of the pilot and; in-depth qualitative interviews (N = 10) with officers experienced in policing stalking from the pilot forces. The results indicated a relationship between longer terms of service and not seeing the utility of the SST. Ultimately, the research supports the need for tools like the piloted SST with the potential to assist law enforcement to police stalking effectively, albeit also pinpointing areas where such tools could be amended to better reflect the realities of policing stalking. The results further suggest the need for improved training for police on tools like the SST in order to ensure effective implementation. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • The lived experience of parenting a child with sensory sensitivity and picky eating
    The lived experience of parenting a child with sensory sensitivity and picky eating Cunliffe, Louise; Coulthard, Helen; Williamson, Iain ‘Picky eating’ is a common behaviour seen in childhood in both clinical and non-clinical populations. Sensory processing difficulties have been repeatedly associated with food refusal and picky eating behaviours. The aim of this study was to explore the lived experiences of parents/caregivers who have a child displaying both sensory processing differences and picky eating behaviours utilising Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Participants were recruited from social media support groups for parents of picky eating children. Pre-selection criteria utilised an adapted short sensory profile questionnaire to ensure the children displayed probable/definite taste-smell, audio-visual and tactile sensory sensitivities. Twelve participants fulfilling the required criteria were interviewed face to face utilising a semi-structured interview schedule. Interviews were transcribed and analysed following IPA guidelines and three common themes are presented here: Battling for control of the sensory environment, Living with stigma and, disapproval, and Staying positive and moving forward. The findings show the very considerable day-to-day challenges of parenting a child with sensory issues with food, including a lack of support and criticism from others. It was apparent that the parents in our study gradually adopted a positive and accepting attitude to their child’s eating. This acceptance allowed them to have positive interactions around food with their child such as cooking and playing with food, suggesting that experiential activities serve an important purpose in this population. Further research should examine whether parental interventions based on acceptance of child eating behaviour, and commitment to gradual positive food interactions would be the best strategy to support parents and children. open access article
  • The development of a self-management intervention for stroke survivors - My Life After Stroke (MLAS)
    The development of a self-management intervention for stroke survivors - My Life After Stroke (MLAS) Johnson, Vicki L; Apps, Lindsay; Hadjiconstantinou, Michelle; Carey, Marian E; Kreit, Elizabeth; Mullis, Ricky; Mant, Jonathon; Davies, Melanie J Purpose Long-term needs of stroke survivors (especially psychosocial needs and stroke prevention) are not adequately addressed. Self-management programmes exist but the optimal content and delivery approach is unclear. We aim to describe the process undertook to develop a structured self-management programme to address these unmet needs. Materials and Methods Based on the Medical Research Council framework for complex interventions, the development involved three phases: ‘Exploring the idea’: Evidence synthesis and patient and public involvement (PPI) with stroke survivors, carers and healthcare professionals. ‘The iterative phase’: Development and iterative refinement of the format, content, underpinning theories and philosophy of the self-management programme My Life After Stroke (MLAS), with PPI. MLAS consists of two individual appointments and four group sessions over nine weeks, delivered interactively by two trained facilitators. It aims to build independence, confidence and hope and focusses on stroke prevention, maximising physical potential, social support and managing emotional responses. MLAS is grounded in the narrative approach and social learning theory. ‘Ready for research’: The refinement of a facilitator curriculum and participant resources to support programme delivery. Results Through a systematic process, we developed an evidence- and theory-based self-management programme for stroke survivors Conclusions MLAS warrants evaluation in a feasibility study. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Factors associated with nature connectedness in school-aged children
    Factors associated with nature connectedness in school-aged children Price, Eluned; Maguire, Sarah; Firth, Catherine; Lumber, Ryan; Richardson, Miles; Young, Richard Increasing people's sense of connectedness to nature has the potential to be a powerful tool in driving pro-conservation behaviours, as well as improving physical and mental health. Multi-age cross-sectional studies have shown that nature connectedness significantly dips after early childhood before recovering in adulthood. However, the precise pattern of this age-related decline is not well-described or understood. We conducted a questionnaire survey of children living on the island of Jersey, Channel Islands, using the Nature Connection Index (NCI) to identify biological, behavioural and social factors associated with nature connectedness levels. Using an information-theoretic approach, we analysed data from 17% of all Jersey's children aged between 7-18 years (N=1872) to investigate the effects of age, gender, school location and funding type. NCI levels were consistently higher in girls than in boys, and declined with age in both sexes into the early teens. Children attending schools in urban areas, particularly at primary level, had a lower mean NCI than those in rural locations. In adolescents (11-18 years), self-reported daily screen time was negatively correlated with NCI scores. Most students reported that their home was the place they preferred to relax, but the majority chose a natural environment as their favourite place. Our results confirm the marked decline in nature connectedness after early childhood but also point to interventions that may help reduce this deterioration, with associated wellbeing and behaviour change benefits. Open Access article
  • The feasibility of a self-management programme (My Life After Stroke; MLAS) for stroke survivors
    The feasibility of a self-management programme (My Life After Stroke; MLAS) for stroke survivors Apps, Lindsay; Kreit, Elizabeth; Johnson, Vicki; Mant, Jonathon; Mullis, Ricky; Davies, Melanie An evidence-based, theory-driven self-management programme ‘My Life After Stroke’ (MLAS) was developed to address the longer-term unmet needs of stroke survivors. This study’s aim was to test the acceptability and feasibility of MLAS as well as exploring what outcomes measures to include as part of further testing. Methods Stroke registers in four GP practices across Leicester and Cambridge were screened, invite letters sent to eligible stroke survivors and written, informed consent gained. Questionnaires including Southampton Stroke Self-Management Questionnaire (SSSMQ) were completed before and after MLAS. Participants (and carers) attended MLAS (consisting of two individual appointments and four group sessions) over nine weeks, delivered by two trained facilitators. Feedback was gained from participants (after the final group session and final individual appointment) and facilitators. Results Seventeen of 36 interested stroke survivors participated alongside seven associated carers. 15/17 completed the programme and attendance ranged from 13-17 per session. A positive change of 3.5 of the SSSMQ was observed. Positive feedback was gained from facilitators and 14/15 participants recommended MLAS (one did not respond). Conclusions MLAS was a feasible self-management programme for stroke survivors and warrants further testing as part of the Improving Primary Care After Stroke (IPCAS) cluster randomised controlled trial. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • The influence of experimental confederate peers on children's food intake: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    The influence of experimental confederate peers on children's food intake: A systematic review and meta-analysis Sharps, Maxine; Coulthard, Helen; Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; Ryan, Sean; Fallon, Vicky Confederates influence eating behaviour. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have been conducted on this topic, however, the majority have examined adults, or a combination of adults and children, therefore, an up-to-date meta-analysis is needed to examine the impact of confederate peers on children’s food intake. We systematically reviewed and meta-analysed the influence of confederate peers on children’s food intake in research using present and remote-confederates. Six publications summarising findings from seven studies were included in this review. One publication was excluded from the meta-analysis because it was not possible to extract the required data. The meta-analysis showed that children were influenced by confederate peers; eating more when exposed to a high-intake compared to a no or low-intake confederate. Larger effects were observed when children were exposed to a remote- than a present-confederate, and for studies using healthy snacks compared to high fat high sugar (HFHS) snacks. No difference in effect size was observed when children were exposed to a high- vs. low-intake confederate compared to a high- vs. no-intake confederate. In the narrative synthesis, confederate intake influenced children’s eating behaviour twenty-four-hours later, and possible moderators and a potential mechanism underlying the influence of confederates were identified. Caution is needed when interpreting the results, as the sub-groups were not compared statistically due to high heterogeneity, and a small number of studies were included in this review. Furthermore, all studies using the present-confederate design examined HFHS snack intake, therefore, it is unclear whether observed differences in effect sizes between present- and remote-confederates may be due to confederate or food type. Research is needed to further examine the influence of confederate peers on children’s food intake and to examine mechanisms and moderators. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Are music listening strategies associated with reduced food consumption following negative mood inductions; a series of three exploratory experimental studies.
    Are music listening strategies associated with reduced food consumption following negative mood inductions; a series of three exploratory experimental studies. van den Tol, Annemieke; Coulthard, Helen; Lang, Victoria; Wallis, Debbie Emotions play an important role in overeating, yet there is little research looking at practical strategies to reduce overeating in response to a negative mood. In three different experimental studies, we tested if exposure to music can reduce food consumption in a negative mood. Female undergraduates (N = 120-121 in each study) completed a measure of emotional eating and reported baseline hunger. Mood ratings were taken at baseline, post-mood induction and post-eating. All participants were given a mood induction (sadness for study 1, stress for studies 2 and 3) and allocated to one of three music conditions (self-chosen in study 3) or a silent (control) condition. Music was selected from three pieces reported by each participant as being listened to regularly when experiencing the negative mood being examined (sadness or stress) in order to provide solace (comforting music), diversion (distracting positive music), or discharge (angry and/or sad music). Participants were provided with several snack foods to consume whilst completing a mock taste test and intake (in grams) was compared between conditions. In study 1 participants in the music for discharge condition consumed less than those in the control condition. Moreover, participants with high levels of self-reported EE ate more crisps in the control than in the distraction condition. In study 2 participants in the solace condition consumed less than those in the control and discharge conditions. In study 3 most participants chose music for diversion; this did not, however, lead to lower consumption, despite a reduction in reported stress. Overall, the results of these studies indicate that listening to certain types of music might reduce emotion-related eating after controlling for hunger using a standardized pre-session snack. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • ‘You Game Like a Girl’: Perceptions of gender and competence in gaming
    ‘You Game Like a Girl’: Perceptions of gender and competence in gaming Kelly, Danielle; Castillo, Paola; Nic Giolla Easpaig, Brona While there is an abundance of research concerning the gendered dimensions of video gaming and online communities, there is a limited focus on gameplay competence. This study examined the relationship between sexism and gendered perceptions of competence in gaming. Three hundred and eighty-five participants volunteered to take part. Participants were randomly allocated to one of three gendered conditions (female, male, or neutral). Participants watched two video game clips within each condition (novice and expert playthroughs). Participants rated the competence and warmth of the players, estimated the number of errors made, and completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory. The findings indicated that female and neutral clips were perceived as less competent than male clips in both skill levels. This difference was more pronounced in the expert level. Warmth ratings varied significantly across conditions. Hostile sexism predicted lower perceptions of warmth. The study demonstrates the need for inclusive and safe online gaming environments. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Has the COVID‐19 pandemic made us more materialistic? The effect of COVID‐19 and lockdown restrictions on the endorsement of materialism
    Has the COVID‐19 pandemic made us more materialistic? The effect of COVID‐19 and lockdown restrictions on the endorsement of materialism Moldes, Olaya; Dineva, Denitsa; Ku, Lisbeth The COVID‐19 pandemic has led to an increase in the factors that typically facilitate the endorsement of materialistic values (e.g., higher media consump tion, stress and anxiety, loneliness, death anxiety, and lower moods). In this paper, we examine how contextual changes affecting the antecedents of ma terialism influence its advocacy with a mixed‐method approach. First, a correlational study (Study 1) suggests that increases in media consumption and stress and anxiety during the pandemic predicted current levels of materialism, however, these effects were limited. Second, contrary to our expectations, a longitudinal study (Study 2) shows that people's focus on money decreased during the pandemic. Last, a social media content analysis (Study 3) reveals a downward trend in users’ online discourses about consumption‐related behaviors, but an upward trend in brands promoting spending as a way to attain well‐being. The observed effects could fuel deeper societal change in the labor market and in consumer behavior, and have further implications for individual and societal well‐being in a post‐pandemic world. We recommend future interventions aimed at diminishing materialistic attitudes to examine the effects of decreasing media consumption and to explore how other factors introduced by the pandemic (e.g., a health or well‐being focus) might moderate its advocacy. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Frontline Response: Exploring the impact of COVID-19 on stalking behaviours
    Frontline Response: Exploring the impact of COVID-19 on stalking behaviours Short, Emma; Bradbury, Paula; Martellozzo, Elena; Frost, Stewart; Bleakley, Paul COVID-19 pandemic lockdown changed the way in which we engage with others and our ability to enjoy free movement away from the confinement of our own homes. Whilst this dramatic change affected everyone, it constituted something much more threatening for victims of stalking, repeatedly targeted by those with an obsessive and fixated behaviour. Whilst we know more about the impact of lockdown stalking behaviour, very little is known about how the police and frontline workers are responding to this challenge. This research aims to increase an understanding of stalking in this context. Firstly, it presents a quantitative examination of recorded data on stalking offences provided by all 43 police forces across England and Wales. In addition, it explores the experiences of those working on the frontline who respond to reports of stalking made by victims. A total of 15 in-depth interviews were conducted with twelve police officers from three forces in England, as well as three advocates of victims from two national stalking services. Analyses show that stalking behaviour has increased and evolved to use accessible channels alongside the COVID restrictions. In conclusion, considerable pressure has been placed on frontline workers to adapt and respond not only to increased incidents but also the changes in the nature of stalking behaviour. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Unanticipated voices? Reflections from our ongoing ‘adventures’ with participant authored photography, interviewing and interpretative phenomenology
    Unanticipated voices? Reflections from our ongoing ‘adventures’ with participant authored photography, interviewing and interpretative phenomenology Williamson, Iain; Quincey, Kerry; Lond, Benjamin; Papaloukas, Periklis Using participant-authored photography to inform and complement the collection of interview data is increasingly popular in Psychology but reflective accounts of issues faced by researchers and participants remain scarce. We therefore present a critical commentary on some of the unexpected outcomes that have emerged during recent studies on health and disability which have employed this approach. Under the theme of ‘unanticipated voices’ we discuss some of the challenges we have experienced around data gathering, interpretation, presentation and dissemination. We consider methodological, theoretical and ethical challenges for this paradigm and some of the challenges involved in publishing this type of work. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version.
  • Vocabulary knowledge predicts individual differences in the integration of visual and linguistic constraints
    Vocabulary knowledge predicts individual differences in the integration of visual and linguistic constraints Kukona, Anuenue; Gaziano, Olivia; Bisson, Marie-Josee; Jordan, Adrian Two experiments investigated individual differences in the integration of visual and linguistic constraints during syntactic ambiguity resolution. Skilled adult comprehenders heard sentences like “Put the kiwi on the rectangle on the circle”, in which “on the rectangle…” could temporarily reflect either the destination of “put” or a modifier of “kiwi”, while viewing visual arrays with either 1 kiwi (e.g., on a rectangle) or 2 kiwis (e.g., on a rectangle vs. triangle). While the noun “kiwi” provided sufficient information to distinguish the object of interest in the 1 referent context, modification was necessitated by the 2 referent context. Garden path eye (Experiment 1) and mouse (Experiment 2) movements to the incorrect (e.g., rectangle) destination were reduced in 2 vs 1 referent contexts, conceptually replicating prior findings, and these effects were weaker for participants with less vs. more vocabulary knowledge. Implications for models of sentence processing are discussed. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • The Experience of Living with Mesothelioma: A Meta-ethnographic Review and Synthesis of the Qualitative Literature.
    The Experience of Living with Mesothelioma: A Meta-ethnographic Review and Synthesis of the Qualitative Literature. Lond, Benjamin; Quincey, Kerry; Apps, Lindsay; Darlison, Liz; Williamson, Iain Objective: Mesothelioma is a life limiting cancer caused by previous exposure to asbestos. Due to the continued use of asbestos products internationally, the condition presents an increasing risk to global health with case numbers peaking in industrially developed nations. With the cancer reducing patient well-being, this study aimed to synthesises the qualitative findings of studies exploring the experiences of patients living with mesothelioma to generate new conceptual insights and guide therapeutic care. Method: Thirteen databases were systematically searched: Academic Search Premier, BioMed Central, British Nursing Database, CINAHL Plus, Cochrane Library, Europe PubMed Central, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, Science Direct, Scopus, Social Care Online, and Web of Science, between August and September 2020. Included articles were subject to quality appraisal using CASP checklists, and their respective findings analysed using a meta-ethnographic form of qualitative data synthesis. Results: Twenty-two articles met the inclusion criteria, and the data synthesis produced three themes: (1) ‘complex trauma’; (2) ‘psycho-behavioural coping strategies’; and (3) ‘external sources of support’. Combined, these themes form a novel conceptual framework and awareness of the patient experience that presents the lived trauma of disease alongside a patients coping processes and support pathways. Conclusion: Robust therapeutic support is needed to address the psychosocial and existential burden shouldered by people with mesothelioma. Therapies which promote sentiments of acceptance, hope and benefit finding are proposed alongside initiatives that foster patient empowerment and meaning, and further promote patient choice in deciding end-of-life care. Recommendations for future research are also made. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Conceptual Spaces and the Strength of Similarity-based Arguments
    Conceptual Spaces and the Strength of Similarity-based Arguments Douven, Igor; Elqayam, Shira; Gardenfors, Peter; Mirabile, Patricia Central to the conceptual spaces framework is the thought that concepts can be studied mathematically, by geometrical and topological means. Various applications of the framework have already been subjected to empirical testing, mostly with excellent results, demonstrating the framework’s usefulness. So far untested is the suggestion that conceptual spaces may help explain certain inferences people are willing to make. The experiment reported in this paper focused on similarity-based arguments, testing the hypothesis that the strength of such arguments can be predicted from the structure of the conceptual space in which the items being reasoned about are represented. A secondary aim of the experiment concerned a recent inferentialist semantics for indicative conditionals, according to which the truth of a conditional requires the presence of a sufficiently strong inferential connection between its antecedent and consequent. To the extent that the strength of similarity-based inferences can be predicted from the geometry and topology of the relevant conceptual space, such spaces should help predict truth ratings of conditionals embodying a similarity-based inferential link. The results supported both hypotheses. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version.
  • Embedding open and reproducible science into teaching: A bank of lesson plans and resources
    Embedding open and reproducible science into teaching: A bank of lesson plans and resources Shaw, John J; Pownall, Madeleine; Azevedo, Flavio; Aldoh, Alaa; Elsherif, Mahmoud; Vasilev, Martin; Pennington, Charlotte R.; Robertson, Olly; Vel Tromp, Myrthe; Liu, Meng; Makel, Matthew C.; Tonge, Natasha; Moreau, David; Horry, Ruth; Tzavella, Loukia; Ronan, McGarrigle; Talbot, Catherine; FORRT; Parsons, Sam Recently, there has been a growing emphasis on embedding open and reproducible approaches into research. One essential step in accomplishing this larger goal is to embed such practices into undergraduate and postgraduate research training. However, this often requires substantial time and resources to implement. Also, while many pedagogical resources are regularly developed for this purpose, they are not often openly and actively shared with the wider community. The creation and public sharing of open educational resources is useful for educators who wish to embed open scholarship and reproducibility into their teaching and learning. In this article, we describe and openly share a bank of teaching resources and lesson plans on the broad topics of open scholarship, open science, replication, and reproducibility that can be integrated into taught courses, to support educators and instructors. These resources were created as part of the Society for the Improvement of Psychological Science (SIPS) hackathon at the 2021 Annual Conference, and we detail this collaborative process in the article. By sharing these open pedagogical resources, we aim to reduce the labour required to develop and implement open scholarship content to further the open scholarship and open educational materials movement. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Three Good Things in Nature: A Nature-Based Positive Psychological Intervention to Improve Mood and Well-Being for Depression and Anxiety
    Three Good Things in Nature: A Nature-Based Positive Psychological Intervention to Improve Mood and Well-Being for Depression and Anxiety Keenan, Rosaline; Lumber, Ryan; Richardson, Miles; Sheffield, David Purpose: Visiting and connecting with nature through psychological interventions improves well-being within the general population. However, few such interventions have been conducted in clinically relevant populations. Design: An experimental design utilising a noticing Three Good Things in Nature (TGTiN) task during a nature based or urban (control) walk was conducted with nature connectedness, well-being, positive and negative affect measured at baseline, post and six-week follow-up. Individuals living with depression and/or anxiety (n = 50; 39 having a diagnosis) were randomly allocated to 30 minutes walking in nature or urban environments for five consecutive days. Findings: An ANCOVA, with age as co-variate, showed a significant effect of time by condition on all variables: nature connectedness ηp2= .34; positive affect ηp2= .42; negative affect ηp2= .66; well-being ηp2= .29. Post-hoc tests indicated a significant increase in nature connectedness and positive affect in the nature versus an urban walk at post and follow-up. Negative affect decreased in the nature walk at post intervention while well-being was significantly greater in the nature walk at follow-up. Originality: The TGTiN intervention effectively improves positive affect, and well-being in clinically relevant populations, although replication with a larger sample is warranted. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Exploring the Experience of Anxiety Among Final Year Students at University: A Thematic Analysis
    Exploring the Experience of Anxiety Among Final Year Students at University: A Thematic Analysis Keane, Catriona; Goodman, Simon; Waldeck, Daniel; Holliman, Andrew; Choudhry, Kubra The transition from undergraduate study to a postgraduate career can be an anxiety provoking experience for many students. In this study, we explore the shared experience of five “anxious” undergraduate students as they transition from higher education towards their postgraduate careers. Using a qualitative methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with five female undergraduate students from different courses at a UK university. A thematic analysis revealed two overarching themes: perceived pressure without sufficient support, and concerns about next steps. The findings suggested the final year is emotionally demanding, and students felt as though there was a lack of provision to manage their transition to postgraduate work or study. Possible implications for policymakers are detailed and areas for research are discussed. open access article
  • Resilience-Based Interventions to Street Childhood Among Street Children in Zimbabwe
    Resilience-Based Interventions to Street Childhood Among Street Children in Zimbabwe Mhizha, Samson; Marandure, B. N.; Chikoko, Witness The chapter explores the efficacy of resilience-based intervention strategies that are aimed at tackling street childhood in Zimbabwe. Resilience-based interventions are those interventions that make use of the inherent capacity and agency of the concerned children. While street childhood is a significant challenge in Zimbabwe and Africa, there are little debates on and use of resilience-based interventions for street children. Zimbabwe is devoid of innovative and well-researched interventions to tackle street childhood. In recent years, resilience has been deployed to explain both the aetiology and interventions to street childhood. Indeed, resilience is explained to influence the decision of getting to the streets by the street children as they attempt to handle family adversity at home. In the same vein, interventions that are based on resilience are suggested in the current study. Analysis of secondary data was conducted for the study. The results reveal that the resilience-based interventions may include religious networks, peer support groups, schooling, use of expressive arts, family and parenting clubs for their parents and guardians, contextual psychosocial support and counselling, vocational training, drug rehabilitation and psychosocial support and counselling.
  • The role of perceived descriptive and injunctive norms on the self-reported frequency of meat and plant-based meal intake in UK-based adults.
    The role of perceived descriptive and injunctive norms on the self-reported frequency of meat and plant-based meal intake in UK-based adults. Sharps, Maxine; Fallon, Vicky; Ryan, Sean; Coulthard, Helen Perceived social norms refer to beliefs that people hold about what other people do (descriptive norms) and approve of (injunctive norms), and are associated with food intake. However, less is known about whether perceived social norms are associated with meat and plant-based meal intake. Using a cross-sectional survey design 136 participants (aged 19-66 years, mean age=39.63, SD=12.85 years, mean BMI=25.77, SD=5.30, 80.9% female, 77.9% omnivores, 22.1% flexitarians) answered questions about how frequently they consumed meat and plant-based meals, and how frequently they perceived people in their social environment to consume (perceived descriptive norms), and approve of consuming (perceived injunctive norms) meat and plant-based meals. Perceived descriptive and injunctive norms were positively associated with participants’ frequency of meat intake: participants ate meat more frequently when they perceived their significant other to frequently eat meat (descriptive norm), and when they perceived their significant other and friends to approve of (injunctive norm) frequently eating meat. Perceived descriptive norms were positively associated, but injunctive norms were negatively associated with participants’ frequency of plant-based meal intake: participants ate plant-based meals more frequently when they perceived their extended family, friends, and significant other to frequently eat plant-based meals. However, participants ate plant-based meals more frequently when they perceived their extended family to approve of less frequent plant-based meal intake. These results suggest that different social groups may be important for meat and plant-based meal intake, with significant others and friends appearing to be important reference points for both food types. Further research examining the contexts in which the different social groups influence eating behaviour would be of value. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Monological telling in the dialogical self
    Monological telling in the dialogical self Liu, Ying The Dialogical Self sees the self as a dialogical narrator with others in the self-structure (Hermans et al., 1992). It argues that I can move between multiple positions and these I in different positions interact with and have conversations with each other (Hermans, 2002). This paper argues for the therapeutic function of a monologue within the self-structure. Drawing on the author’s experience of working through a childhood trauma through an internal monologue that is addressed to an imaginary other after sandplay sessions, this paper explores the value of an other in the self that listens to, receives and witnesses the monological telling without active responses. This paper argues that the monological telling to instead of talking with gives space to the realm of human experience that is less coherent, inarticulate and fragmented. It gives this realm of experience a chance to be known without imposing on it a narrative structure which it lacks. open access book
  • The Role of Contingency and Correlation in the Stroop Task
    The Role of Contingency and Correlation in the Stroop Task Hasshim, Nabil; Parris, Benjamin Facilitation (faster responses to Congruent trials compared with Neutral trials) in the Stroop task has been a difficult effect for models of cognitive control to explain. The current research investigated the role of word-response contingency, word-colour correlation, and proportion congruency in producing Stroop effects. Contingency and correlation refers to the probability of specific word-response and word-colour pairings that are implicitly learnt while performing the task. Pairs that have a higher probability of occurring are responded to faster, a finding that challenges top-down attention control accounts of Stroop task performance. However, studies that try to experimentally control for contingency and correlation typically do so by increasing the proportion of incongruent trials in the task, which cognitive control accounts posit affects interference control via the top-down biasing of attention. The present research focused on whether facilitation is also affected by contingency and correlation while additionally looking at the effect of proportion congruency. This was done in two experiments that compared the typical design of Stroop task experiments (i.e., having equal proportions of Congruent and Incongruent trials but also contingency and correlational biases) to: (a) a design that had unequal congruency proportions but no contingency or correlation (Experiment 1) and (b) a design where the correlation is biased but proportion congruency and contingency were not (Experiment 2). Results did not support the hypotheses that contingency or correlation affected facilitation. However, interference was almost halved in the alternative design of Experiment 2, demonstrating an effect of contingency learning in typical measures of Stroop interference. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Unanticipated voices? Reflections from our ongoing ‘adventures’ with participant-authored photography, interviewing and interpretative phenomenology
    Unanticipated voices? Reflections from our ongoing ‘adventures’ with participant-authored photography, interviewing and interpretative phenomenology Williamson, I. R.; Quincey, Kerry; Lond, Benjamin J; Papaloukas, Periklis Using participant-authored photography to inform and complement the collection of interview data is increasingly popular in Psychology but reflective accounts of issues faced by researchers and participants remain scarce. We therefore present a critical commentary on some of the unexpected outcomes that have emerged during recent studies on health and disability which have employed this approach. Under the theme of ‘unanticipated voices’ we discuss some of the challenges we have experienced around data gathering, interpretation, presentation and dissemination. We consider methodological, theoretical and ethical challenges for this paradigm and some of the challenges involved in publishing this type of work. open access article
  • Using the Five Pathways to Nature to make a Spiritual Connection in Early Recovery from SUD: A Pilot Study
    Using the Five Pathways to Nature to make a Spiritual Connection in Early Recovery from SUD: A Pilot Study Rhodes, J.; Lumber, R. Spirituality is a broad concept and open to different perspectives. It is associated with a sense of connection to something larger than oneself and a search for life’s meaning. Many people find this meaning through a connection with nature, but less is known about how to create a connection for those who are actively seeking one. Individuals in early recovery from addiction are encouraged to engage in 12 Step programmes (TSPs). However, the spiritual nature of the programme with references to the word “god” can serve as a deterrent. Nature connectedness through the five pathways provides a potential opportunity to introduce the concept of a higher power (HP) through a connection with nature. In this pilot mixed-methods study, a group of participants (n=12) in outpatient treatment for SUD were exposed to the five pathways and compared to a control group. Semi-structured interviews were conducted following the initial intervention. Drawing upon nature as a higher power through the pathways led to significant increases in nature connectedness, well-being, quality of life, and spirituality compared to a control group. The pilot study indicates that nature through the five pathways to nature connectedness provides a potential alternative for a higher power to draw upon within Twelve-Step The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Recollective experience mediates the relation between visual perspective and psychological closeness in autobiographical memory
    Recollective experience mediates the relation between visual perspective and psychological closeness in autobiographical memory Janssen, Steve; Anne, Michele; Parker, Denise Psychological closeness refers to how recent and near an event feels to a person remembering the event and how close this person feels from their “past self” in the event. Participants recalled recent positive and recent negative experiences and rated them on field perspective, observer perspective, emotionality, recollective experience, and psychological closeness at two sessions held four weeks apart. Field perspective, emotionality, recollective experience, and psychological closeness decreased over time. More field perspective, higher emotionality, and stronger recollective experience corresponded with higher levels of psychological closeness. In addition, participants with large changes between the two sessions in field perspective and emotionality also reported large changes in recollective experience, and participants with large changes in recollective experience also reported large changes in psychological closeness. Finally, recollective experience mediated the relation between field perspective and psychological closeness. Recollective experience, however, did not consistently mediate the relation between emotionality and psychological closeness. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • ‘You come back fighting. That's what gives you the drive to achieve’: The extraordinary psychological construction of the super-rich in entertainment documentaries
    ‘You come back fighting. That's what gives you the drive to achieve’: The extraordinary psychological construction of the super-rich in entertainment documentaries Goodman, Simon; Carr, Philippa; Abell, Jackie; Jowett, Adam Inequality in society is legitimised through the ‘meritocracy myth’ and existing research claims that the affluence of the super-rich is the result of their superior traits. Discursive Social Psychology examines the ways in which psychological concepts such as personality traits function in talk. This research explores how entertainment documentaries construct the traits of the super-rich to legitimise their wealth. A corpus of 41.5 hours of terrestrial UK televised broadcasts that used the term, ‘super-rich’ was analysed. This explored how wealthy individuals are presented as having superior psychological qualities compared to the general public in relation to their greater drive and resilience. However, wealthy individuals also talk about the development of superior traits as a response to adversity. Entertainment documentaries draw upon individualistic ideology to present wealth inequality as a natural consequence of individual differences and as a result, the current distribution of wealth is ‘just’ despite its negative consequences for all. open access article
  • Fifty shades of darkness: A socio-cognitive information-processing framework applied to narcissism and psychopathy
    Fifty shades of darkness: A socio-cognitive information-processing framework applied to narcissism and psychopathy Lopes, Barbara; Yu, Hui; Bortolon, Catherine; Jaspal, Rusi Existing trait-based and cognitive models of psychopathy and narcissism fail to provide a comprehensive framework that explains the continuum between sub-clinical and clinical presentations of those personalities and to predict associated maladaptive behavior in different social and cultural contexts. In this article, a socio-cognitive information-processing framework for narcissism and psychopathy (SCIPNP) is proposed to explain how psychopathic and narcissistic schemata influence the activation of psychological processes that interact with social and cultural contexts to display those personalities at a sub-clinical level. The proposed framework enables us to predict maladaptive behavior and to explain how sub-clinical narcissists and psychopaths develop personality disorders. The SCIPNP emphasizes the role of culture in shaping motives, appraisals, behavior and affect. Recommendations for future research are provided. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Men with breast cancer and their encounters with masculinity: An interpretative phenomenological analysis using photography
    Men with breast cancer and their encounters with masculinity: An interpretative phenomenological analysis using photography Quincey, Kerry; Williamson, Iain; Wildbur, Diane Under-acknowledged clinically and socially, breast cancer in men is a critical health issue, with complex ramifications for those affected. Experiential research exploring men’s meaning making of breast cancer accordingly is scant. In this innovative multi-method inquiry, 31 British men, accessed from both clinical care and community contexts, took photographs to illustrate their breast cancer experiences and discussed these in extended semi-structured interviews. Verbal and photographic data were analysed together using interpretative phenomenological analysis through the emerging ‘visual voice’ paradigm. Findings illuminated both the multiple difficulties men encountered and the coping strategies they employed. In particular, the complex and dynamic ways in which men navigated, made sense of, and performed masculinity through their breast cancer journey was pivotal to understanding these experiences and how they presented their accounts, verbally and visually. Thus, the analysis presented identifies and illustrates three experiential and inter-connected encounters with masculinity: ‘Threatened-exposed’, ‘Protected-asserted’ and ‘Reconsidered-reconfigured’ which are presented both thematically and through a novel schematic representation. We demonstrate how men’s relationships with masculinity shapes their accounts of both the embodied lived experience of breast cancer and how the cancer experience, with its many changes, challenges, and consequences, is communicated to others. How and why men encounter/perform these different masculinities at different points in time across the breast cancer trajectory, and how this aids their adjustment to illness and life post-diagnosis is considered. We conclude with recommendations for improved future breast cancer care and support and suggest future research directions with this community of hitherto under-researched and under-represented men. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version.
  • A single incident of "revenge porn"? The prevalence of image based sexual abuse in a course of conduct amounting to stalking and consideration of the harms caused
    A single incident of "revenge porn"? The prevalence of image based sexual abuse in a course of conduct amounting to stalking and consideration of the harms caused Short, Emma; Hanney, Leanne; Pitchford, Melanie; Morrin, Majella; Barnes, James The distribution of private sexual images without the individual’s consent is a pernicious form of sexual abuse. Image based sexual abuse (IBSA), sometimes known as Revenge Porn (RP), refers to images of a sexual nature generally distributed across social networks and the internet with the intent to cause distress. It is a criminal offence under the Criminal Justice and Courts Act 2015 [CJCA] . This article presents findings which indicate the prevalence of IBSA in a conduct amounting to stalking, alongside data which demonstrates the severity of its impact on victims. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Does Autism Affect Children’s Identification of Ownership and Defence of Ownership Rights?
    Does Autism Affect Children’s Identification of Ownership and Defence of Ownership Rights? Hartley, Calum; Harrison, Nina; Shaw, John J This study investigated how autism spectrum disorder (ASD) impacts children’s ability to identify ownership from linguistic cues (proper nouns vs. possessive pronouns) and their awareness of ownership rights. In comparison to typically developing (TD) children matched on receptive language (M age equivalents: 53–56 months), children with ASD were less accurate at tracking owner-object relationships based on possessive pronouns and were less accurate at identifying the property of third parties. We also found that children with ASD were less likely to defend their own and others’ ownership rights. We hypothesise that these results may be attributed to differences in representing the self and propose that ASD may be characterised by reduced concern for ownership and associated concepts. open access article
  • A rapid systematic review of public responses to health messages encouraging vaccination against infectious diseases in a pandemic or epidemic
    A rapid systematic review of public responses to health messages encouraging vaccination against infectious diseases in a pandemic or epidemic Lawes-Wickwar, S; Ghio, D; Tang, MY; Keyworth, C; Stanescu, S; Westbrook, J; Jenkinson, E; Kassianos, AP; Scanlan, D; Garnett, N; Laidlaw, L; Howlett, N; Carr, N; Stanulewicz, N; Swanson, V Public health teams need to understand how the public responds to vaccination messages in a pandemic or epidemic to inform successful campaigns encouraging the uptake of new vaccines as they become available. A rapid systematic review was performed by searching PsycINFO, MEDLINE, healthevidence.org, OSF Preprints and PsyArXiv Preprints in May 2020 for studies including at least one health message promoting vaccine uptake of airborne-, droplet- and fomite-spread viruses. Included studies were assessed for quality using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) or the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR), and for patient and public involvement (PPI) in the research. Thirty-five articles were included. Most reported messages for seasonal influenza (n = 11; 31%) or H1N1 (n = 11; 31%). Evidence from moderate to high quality studies for improving vaccine uptake included providing information about virus risks and vaccination safety, as well as addressing vaccine misunderstandings, offering vaccination reminders, including vaccination clinic details, and delivering mixed media campaigns across hospitals or communities. Behavioural influences (beliefs and intentions) were improved when: shorter, risk-reducing or relative risk framing messages were used; the benefits of vaccination to society were emphasised; and beliefs about capability and concerns among target populations (e.g., vaccine safety) were addressed. Clear, credible, messages in a language target groups can understand were associated with higher acceptability. Two studies (6%) described PPI in the research process. Future campaigns should consider the beliefs and information needs of target populations in their design, including ensuring that vaccine eligibility and availability is clear, and messages are accessible. More high quality research is needed to demonstrate the effects of messaging interventions on actual vaccine uptake. open access article
  • Cyber-disability hate cases in the UK: the documentation by the police and potential barriers to reporting
    Cyber-disability hate cases in the UK: the documentation by the police and potential barriers to reporting Alhaboby, Zhraa A.; Al-Khateeb, Haider M.; Barnes, James; Jahankhani, Hamid; Pitchford, Melanie; Conradie, Liesl; Short, Emma Disability hate crime is under-reported in the UK with perceived lim-ited support given to the victims. The use of online communication resulted in cyber-disability hate cases, recognised by the Police with the addition of an ‘online-flag’ in the documentation. However, the cases remain under-reported, with potential individual, societal and organisational barriers to reporting espe-cially during a pandemic. This paper aims to contextualise the reporting of cyber-disability hate cases, identify potential barriers, and provide recommendations to improve support to victims by the Police.The retrospective examination was car-ried out on disability-related cyber incidentsdocumented by a police force in the UK for 19 months. Among 3,349 cyber-crimes, 23 cases were included. The anal-ysis covereddescriptive statistics and qualitative document analysis (QDA). Only 0.7% of cyber incidentsor 6.7% of cyber-hate incidentswere disability re-lated. The age of victims ranged between 15 and61 years, with a mean of 25.8 years. Most of the victims (78%) were from White ethnic background, and the majority were females (61.5%). Three overarching themes emerged from the qualitative dataas influencers of reporting or documentation, these were: psy-chological impact, fear for safety, and the type of disability.Cyber-offences re-sulted in a serious impact on wellbeing, however, cases that included people with visible disabilitieswere more documented. Further awareness-raising targeting the police and public is needed to understand the impact of cyber-offences and recognise the different types of disabilities, which might encourage both report-ing and documentation
  • Contextual constraints on the activation of lexical forms by nonlinguistic sounds
    Contextual constraints on the activation of lexical forms by nonlinguistic sounds Kukona, Anuenue Three visual world experiments investigated the activation of linguistic knowledge during the processing of nonlinguistic auditory stimuli. In Experiment 1, participants heard spoken words such as “car” or environmental sounds such as a sound produced by a car while viewing visual arrays with objects such as a car (target), card (phonologically related competitor) and box (unrelated distractor). Interleaved throughout, participants heard both spoken words and environmental sounds. In Experiment 2 and 3, in order to assess contextual constraints on processing, participants only heard environmental sounds while viewing similar visual arrays (targets were included in the former but not the latter). When participants heard environmental sounds interleaved among spoken words (Experiment 1), they fixated competitors significantly more than distractors during both types of auditory stimuli, suggesting that both engage linguistic systems and representations; however, when participants only heard environmental sounds (Experiment 2 and 3), phonological competition was not observed. These results suggest that the activation of linguistic knowledge by environmental sounds is context dependent rather than automatic, differing from spoken words. Implications for theories addressing the mapping of auditory stimuli onto conceptual knowledge are discussed. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Inference strength predicts the probability of conditionals better than conditional probability does
    Inference strength predicts the probability of conditionals better than conditional probability does Douven, Igor; Elqayam, Shira; Mirabile, Patricia According to the philosophical theory of inferentialism and its psychological counterpart, Hypothetical Inferential Theory (HIT), the meaning of an indicative conditional centrally involves the strength of the inferential connection between its antecedent and its consequent. This paper states, for the first time, the implications of HIT for the probabilities of conditionals. We report two experiments comparing these implications with those of the suppositional account of conditionals, according to which the probability of a conditional equals the corresponding conditional probability. A total of 358 participants were presented with everyday conditionals across three different tasks: judging the probability of the conditionals; judging the corresponding conditional probabilities; and judging the strength of the inference from antecedent to consequent. In both experiments, we found inference strength to be a much stronger predictor of the probability of conditionals than conditional probability, thus supporting HIT. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version.
  • Further Empirical Evidence on Patrick Hughes’ Reverspectives: A Pilot Study
    Further Empirical Evidence on Patrick Hughes’ Reverspectives: A Pilot Study Galmonte, Alessandra; Murgia, Mauro; Sors, Fabrizio; Prpic, Valter; Agostini, Tiziano Reverspectives are paintings created by the English artist Patrick Hughes. They are 3D structures, for example, pyramids or prisms, which elicit an illusory depth perception that corresponds to the reverse of the physical depth layout. Rogers and Gyani state that “the perspective information provided by a simple grid of vertical and horizontal lines on a slanting surface can be just as powerful as the information provided by a rich, naturalistic scene”. The present experiment was aimed to further investigate this perspective reversal. Three independent variables were manipulated: (1) texture components (i.e., vertical, horizontal, and oblique lines components), (2) texture spatial arrangement (i.e., Hughes-type “perspective” grid vs. equidistant “no perspective” grid), and (3) illumination direction (i.e., homogeneous illumination, light from above, and light from below). The dependent variable was the “critical distance”, namely, the distance between an approaching observer and the stimulus at which the illusory depth perception of concavity/convexity switched to the actual perception of convexity/concavity. The results showed that a stronger illusion is elicited by: (a) a Hughes-type texture spatial arrangement; (b) a complete grid texture composition, having both vertical and horizontal, and oblique components; and (c) illumination from below, as opposed to the condition in which light is coming from above. open access article
  • The rhetorical use of the threat of the far‐right in the UK Brexit debate
    The rhetorical use of the threat of the far‐right in the UK Brexit debate Goodman, Simon While attention has been given to understanding support for the far‐right, there is a lack of focus on the way in which a threat of the far‐right can be used for political ends. This paper addresses this using the UK Brexit debate as an illustration. The question therefore is: What is talk about the far‐right used to do in discussions about Brexit? A discursive psychological approach addresses a sample of newspaper reports containing both ‘Far‐Right’ and ‘Brexit’, from the first quarter of 2019 (n = 45). The analysis identifies a range of uses of talk about the far‐right: (1) An opponent of Brexit is called a Nazi by pro‐Brexit protesters, who are labelled far‐right; (2) A lack of Brexit is presented as fuel for the far‐right; (3) Remain supporters reject the idea that a lack of Brexit fuels the far‐right; (4) A link with the far‐right is rejected by a prominent Brexit supporter; and (5) Support for Brexit is again linked with the far‐right. The far‐right can be used as a strategic tool by opposing sides of the Brexit debate and – significantly – the supposed threat of the far‐right can be used to placate far‐right ideas, rather than to genuinely challenge them. open access article
  • The Mediating Role of Perceived Control and Desire for Control in the Relationship between Personality and Depressive Symptomology
    The Mediating Role of Perceived Control and Desire for Control in the Relationship between Personality and Depressive Symptomology Myles, L. A. M.; Connolly, J.; Stanulewicz, N. Introduction: Depression constitutes a fundamental problem for society and understanding its aetiology is of unequivocal importance. Seminal theories implicated low perceived control, low desire for control and variations in personality factors in the manifestation of depression. This study, however, is the first to examine the mediating roles of both desire for control and perceived control in the relationship between personality and depressive symptomology. Methods: A sample of 350 participants, ranging from 18 to 67 years of age (M = 22.8, SD = 9.0), were recruited through Durham University’s social media pages. Participants completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, the Spheres of Control Scale, the Desire for Control Scale and Beck’s Depression Inventory. Results: Path analysis using Maximum-Likelihood Method indicated that desire for control and perceived control serially mediated the effect of extraversion, conscientiousness and agreeableness on depressive symptomology, with only neuroticism maintaining a direct effect. Extraversion and conscientiousness increased desire for control, whereas agreeableness diminished desire for control. Greater desire for control subsequently elevated perceived control, manifesting reductions in depressive symptomology. Discussion: This study provides novel evidence that desire for control and perceived control mediate the relationship between personality and depressive symptoms. The clinical implications are discussed, evaluating the potential efficacy of therapies that bolster desire for control. open access article
  • Personality Psychology: Domains of Knowledge about Human Nature
    Personality Psychology: Domains of Knowledge about Human Nature Song, J.; Wismeijer, Andreas; van den Berg, Stephanie
  • Metacognitive Awareness Scale, Domain Specific (MCAS- DS): Assessing Metacognitive Awareness during Raven's Progressive Matrices
    Metacognitive Awareness Scale, Domain Specific (MCAS- DS): Assessing Metacognitive Awareness during Raven's Progressive Matrices Song, J.; Loyal, Sasha; Lond, Benjamin Metacognition, the cognition about cognition, is closely linked to intelligence and therefore understanding the metacognitive processes underlying intelligence test performance, specifically on Raven’s Progressive Matrices, could help advance the knowledge about intelligence. The measurement of metacognition, is often done using domain-general offline questionnaires or domain-specific online think-aloud protocols. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between metacognitive awareness and intelligence via the design and use of a novel Meta-Cognitive Awareness Scale – Domain Specific (MCAS-DS) that encourages reflection of task strategy processes. This domain-specific scale was first constructed to measure participants’ awareness of their own metacognition linked to Raven’s Progressive Matrices (SPM). Following discriminatory index, Exploratory Factor Analysis, a 15-item scale was devised. Exploratory Factor Analysis showed five factors: Awareness of Engagement in Self-Monitoring, Awareness of Own Ability, Awareness of Responding Speed/Time, Awareness of Alternative Solutions and Awareness of Requisite Problem-Solving Resources. The intelligence level of ninety-eight adults was then estimated using Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices. Participants also completed the MCAS-DS, and further items that examined their test-taking behaviour and Confidence level. Metacognitive awareness was positively correlated to standardized IQ scores derived from the SPM whilst Over-Confidence derived using the Confidence level measure was negatively correlated to SPM. Despite some limitations, this study shows promise for elucidating the relationship between metacognitive awareness and intelligence using the task-specific scale. open access article
  • Improving young children’s handwashing behaviour and understanding of germs: The impact of A Germ’s Journey educational resources in schools and public spaces
    Improving young children’s handwashing behaviour and understanding of germs: The impact of A Germ’s Journey educational resources in schools and public spaces Younie, Sarah; Mitchell, Chloe; Bisson, Marie-Josee; Crosby, Sapphire; Kukona, Anuenue; Laird, Katie Context: Effective handwashing can prevent the spread of germs, including Covid-19. However, young children can lack a fundamental understanding of germ transfer. A Germ’s Journey educational resources were designed to support young children in learning about germs and handwashing. These resources include a book, website, song, online games and glo-gel activities that are informed by a behaviour change model. Research gap: Prior research has not evaluated the impacts of these resources on behavioural outcomes. Purpose of the study: Two intervention studies evaluated the impacts of these resources on both knowledge and behavioural outcomes. Method: In Study 1, children (n = 225) were recruited from four schools and randomly assigned by classrooms to participate in a multicomponent intervention (vs. control). In Study 2, children (n = 104) were recruited from a museum and randomly assigned to participate in a song intervention (vs. control). Trained observers recorded participants’ engagement in six handwashing behaviours and their understanding of germs. These behavioural and knowledge outcomes were analysed using regression and related analyses. Results: In Study 1, significant improvements were observed between baseline and follow up in the intervention group for both behavioural scores (Est = 0.48, SE = 0.14, t = 3.30, p = 0.001) and knowledge scores (Est = 2.14, SE = 0.52, z = 4.11, p < 0.001), whereas these improvements were not observed in the control group (ts < 1). In Study 2, the intervention group had significantly higher behavioural scores compared to the control group (Est. = -0.71, SE = 0.34, t = -2.07, p = 0.04). Conclusion: This research demonstrates that specifically designed hand hygiene educational resources can improve handwashing practice and understanding in young children, and could lead to the reduction of the transmission of disease within this group. open access article
  • The Value of Pedagogical Preferences: A Case of Personality and Learning Environments in Higher Education
    The Value of Pedagogical Preferences: A Case of Personality and Learning Environments in Higher Education Wilson, Thomas; Davies, Jean To improve learning outcomes, research evidence has accumulated regarding the principles of teaching and learning; however, students’ perceptions of teaching methods have received little scientific investigation toward enhanced quality of their learning. To provide a demonstration of the value of researching student perceptions of the learning environments in which they find themselves, a sample of preference ratings (n = 69) was examined to test the hypothesis there exist among the Five Factor personality dimensions correlates of preference ratings for three environments: teacher-led, independent-autonomous, and groups. Results confirmed preference for group learning in our sample and statistically reliable zero-order positive correlations between group-based learning preference and both extraversion and openness scores and between preference for teacher-led environments and openness scores. First-order correlations showed no significant changes in accounted preference variation when controlling the other personality factors scores. These findings are discussed with respect to likely social-cognitive and neurodevelopmental bases of group learning effectiveness and the utility of investigating student preferences for improving the quality of learning. open access journal
  • Investigating the True Effect of Psychological Variables Measured Prior to Arthroplastic Surgery on Postsurgical Outcomes: A P-Curve Analysis
    Investigating the True Effect of Psychological Variables Measured Prior to Arthroplastic Surgery on Postsurgical Outcomes: A P-Curve Analysis Niederstrasser, Nils; Cook, Stephanie Patients’ presurgical psychological profiles have been posited to predict pain and function following arthroplastic surgery of the hip and knee. Nevertheless, findings are conflicting, and this may be rooted in biased reporting that makes the determination of evidential value difficult. This ambiguity may have negative consequences for researchers and governmental agencies, as these rely on findings to accurately reflect reality. P-Curve analyses were used to establish the presence of evidential value and selective reporting in a sample of studies examining the effect of presurgical psychological predictors on outcomes following knee and hip arthroplastic surgery. A systematic search of the literature revealed 26 relevant studies. The examined sets of studies indicate that there is evidential value for the effect of depression on pain intensity and function, anxiety on pain intensity and function, pain catastrophizing on pain intensity, as well as the combined effects of all psychological predictors on pain intensity and function. The presence of evidential value was inconclusive for the effect of optimism on pain intensity. There were no signs that any results were influenced by biased reporting. The results highlight the importance of patients’ psychological profiles in predicting surgical outcomes, which represent a promising avenue for future treatment approaches. Perspective: The effects of P-hacking are difficult to detect and might be at the root of conflicting findings pertaining to the predictive properties of presurgical psychological variables on postsurgical outcomes. P-Curve analysis allows the determination of evidential value underlying these relationships and detection of P-hacking to ensure that findings are not the result of selective reporting. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Social orienting and social seeking behaviors in ASD. A meta analytic investigation
    Social orienting and social seeking behaviors in ASD. A meta analytic investigation Dubey, Indu; Hedger, Nicholas; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev Social motivation accounts of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) posit that individuals with ASD find social stimuli less rewarding than neurotypical (NT) individuals. Behaviorally, this is proposed to manifest in reduced social orienting (individuals with ASD direct less attention towards social stimuli) and reduced social seeking (individuals with ASD invest less effort to receive social stimuli). In two meta-analyses, involving data from over 6000 participants, we review the available behavioral studies that assess social orienting and social seeking behaviors in ASD. We found robust evidence for reduced social orienting in ASD, across a range of paradigms, demographic variables and stimulus contexts. The most robust predictor of this effect was interactive content - effects were larger when the stimulus involved an interaction between people. By contrast, the evidence for reduced social seeking indicated weaker evidence for group differences, observed only under specific experimental conditions. The insights gained from this meta-analysis can inform design of relevant task measures for social reward responsivity and promote directions for further study on the ASD phenotype. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Acceptance, Grief and Adaptation amongst Caregivers of Partners with Acquired Brain Injury: An Interpretative Phenomenological Enquiry
    Acceptance, Grief and Adaptation amongst Caregivers of Partners with Acquired Brain Injury: An Interpretative Phenomenological Enquiry Lond, Benjamin; Williamson, Iain Purpose: Families provide vital support to relatives with brain injury yet shoulder significant stress and anxiety with little help threatening family cohesion and rehabilitative outcomes. This paper analyses the accounts of people caring for a long-term partner with brain injury to identify coping mechanisms and support systems that enhanced well-being. Materials and method: This study used semi-structured interviews with eight participants and interpretative phenomenological analysis. Results: Three themes are reported— ‘moving through denial toward acceptance’; ‘confronting and managing ambiguous loss’; and ‘becoming an expert carer’. Theme one describes participants’ struggles to accept the longevity of brain injury and use of strenuous care practices to deny or fight disability; this proved counterproductive and was later remedied by individuals embracing change and making adaptations. Theme two reports how participants split their partners’ identities -before and after brain injury- to help grieve for the marital relationships they lost. Theme three looks at participants’ development of self-reliant attitudes to caregiving due to perceived limited state help, while embracing peer support that enhanced information and emotion-based coping. Conclusions: Findings support therapeutic practices that help family members confront the permanence of brain injury, and target feelings of complex and unresolved grief. Future research proposals are discussed. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Food-related attentional bias and its associations with appetitive motivation and body weight: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Food-related attentional bias and its associations with appetitive motivation and body weight: A systematic review and meta-analysis McGale, Lauren; Hardman, Charlotte; Jones, Andrew; Burton, Sam; Duckworth, Jay Joseph; Mead, Bethan; Roberts, Carl; Field, Matt; Werthmann, Jessica Theoretical models suggest that food-related visual attentional bias (AB) may be related to appetitive motivational states and individual differences in body weight; however, findings in this area are equivocal. We conducted a systematic review and series of meta-analyses to determine if there is a positive association between food-related AB and: (1.) body mass index (BMI) (number of effect sizes (k)=110), (2.) hunger (k=98), (3.) subjective craving for food (k=35), and (4.) food intake (k=44). Food-related AB was robustly associated with craving (r = .134 (95% CI .061, .208); p < .001), food intake (r = .085 (95% CI .038, .132); p < .001), and hunger (r = .048 (95% CI .016, .079); p = .003), but these correlations were small. Food-related AB was unrelated to BMI (r =.008 (95% CI -.020, .035); p = .583) and this result was not moderated by type of food stimuli, method of AB assessment, or the subcomponent of AB that was examined. Furthermore, in a between-groups analysis (k = 22) which directly compared participants with overweight/obesity to healthy-weight control groups, there was no evidence for an effect of weight status on foodrelated AB (Hedge’s g = 0.104, (95% CI -0.050, 0.258); p =.186). Taken together, these findings suggest that foodrelated AB is sensitive to changes in the motivational value of food, but is unrelated to individual differences in body weight. Our findings question the traditional view of AB as a trait-like index of preoccupation with food and have implications for novel theoretical perspectives on the role of food AB in appetite control and obesity. In collaboration with researchers in Universities of Liverpool, Sheffield and Freiburg The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • University Students’ Hangover May Affect Cognitive Research
    University Students’ Hangover May Affect Cognitive Research Murgia, Mauro; Mingolo, Serena; Prpic, Valter; Sors, Fabrizio; Santoro, Ilaria; Bilotta, Eleonora; Agostini, Tiziano University students are the most employed category of participants in cognitive research. However, researchers cannot fully control what their participants do the night before the experiments (e.g., consumption of alcohol) and, unless the experiment specifically concerns the effects of alcohol consumption, they often do not ask about it. Despite previous studies demonstrating that alcohol consumption leads to decrements in next-day cognitive abilities, the potential confounding effect of hangover on the validity of cognitive research has never been addressed. To address this issue, in the present study, a test-retest design was used, with two groups of university students: at T0, one group was constituted by hungover participants, while the other group was constituted by non-hungover participants; at T1, both groups were re-tested in a non-hangover state. In particular, the tests used were two versions of a parity judgment task and an arithmetic verification task. The results highlight that: (a) the response times of university students experiencing a hangover are significantly slower than those of non-hangover students and (b) the response times of hungover students are slower than those of the same students when re-tested in a non-hangover state. Additionally, it was also observed that the prevalence of hungover students in the university campus varies depending on the day of the week, with a greater chance of enrolling hungover participants on specific days. In light of the latter result, the recruitment of university students as participants in cognitive experiments might lead researchers to erroneously attribute their results to the variables they are manipulating, ignoring the effects of the potential hangover state. open access article
  • Postpartum depression in mothers and fathers: a structural equation model
    Postpartum depression in mothers and fathers: a structural equation model Duan, Zhizhou; Yang, Yuanyuan; Ping, Jiang; Wilson, Amanda; Guo, Yan; Lv, Yongliang; Yang, Xiaonan; Yu, Renjie; Wang, Shuilan; Wu, Zhengyah; Xia, Mengqing; Wang, Guosheng; Tao, Ye; Xiaohong, L.; Ma, Ling; Shen, Hong; Sun, Jue; Deng, Wei; Yang, Yong; Chen, Runsen Background Post-partum depression (PPD) is a growing mental health concern worldwide. There is little evidence in the Chinese context of the relationship between paternal PPD and maternal PPD. Given the growing global concerns this relationship requires further exploration. Methods A survey was conducted with 950 total couples from March 2017 to December 2018. The study was conducted using a standardized questionnaire that included basic demographic information, information on the relationship between the mother-in-law and daughter-in-law, marital satisfaction (both maternal and paternal), and PPD symptoms. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) analysis was used to explore the underlying mechanism for PPD symptoms in mothers and fathers. Results In 4.4% of the couples both the wife and the husband showed depressive symptoms. Maternal marital satisfaction showed a significant mediating effect on paternal PPD (B = -0.114, p < 0.01), and there was a direct effect of maternal PPD on paternal PPD (B = 0.31, p < 0.001). Conclusions This is the first study to investigate the possible correlation between maternal PPD, mother-in-law and daughter-in-law relationship satisfaction, maternal marital satisfaction, paternal marital satisfaction, and paternal PPD. It is important for future PPD interventions to target both maternal and paternal mental health, as well as the mechanisms identified that can lead to PPD. open access article
  • Exploring the role of moral disengagement, knowledge and attitude for ISA.
    Exploring the role of moral disengagement, knowledge and attitude for ISA. Hadlington, L.; Binder, J.; Stanulewicz, N. As security breaches in organisations are on the rise, developing an understanding of factors enabling and preventing such breaches is crucial. Even though previous studies have examined organisational aspects of information security, not much focus has been placed on human factors. In the present work we examined the tendency to morally disengage (MD), information security awareness (ISA), and counterproductive work behaviours (CWB), in a sample of 718 employees who used computers on daily basis, in order to establish predictors of CWB and the behavioural outcomes of ISA. The results showed that the propensity to morally disengage plays an important role in ISA, particularly the aspect of diffusion of responsibility. Secondly, ISA knowledge and ISA attitude, as expected, were part of a mediating mechanism underlying the relationship between MD and ISA behaviours, as well as MD and CWB. This demonstrates that ISA and CWB constructs overlap to a certain degree, and thus affecting one, should have effects also on the other. Targeted interventions need to consider ways of improving ISA knowledge and attitudes, as well as employees’ sense of responsibility for the information they work with.
  • The Roles of Leader Empowering Behaviour and Employee Proactivity in Daily Job Crafting: A Compensatory Model
    The Roles of Leader Empowering Behaviour and Employee Proactivity in Daily Job Crafting: A Compensatory Model Jiang, Feng; Lu, Su; Wang, Haijiang; Zhu, Xiji; Lin, Weipeng The study investigates how daily fluctuations in leader self-rated empowering behaviour are related to employees’ daily level job crafting behaviour. From an interactionist perspective, the authors propose and test two competing theoretical models investigating how supervisors’ daily empowering behaviour and subordinates’ proactive personality jointly affect subordinates’ daily work engagement and daily job crafting. One hundred and six leader-follower dyads working in several companies completed a questionnaire and a diary booklet over five consecutive workdays. The results of multi-level analyses revealed a cross-level-moderated mediation model, of which the indirect effect of empowering behaviour on job crafting via work engagement was stronger for less proactive employees than for higher proactive employees. The findings reveal a compensatory relation between leader empowering behaviour and employee proactive personality, suggesting that empowering behaviour would be more effective for increasing the work engagement of less proactive workers. Future directions and human resource management implications are discussed. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link
  • Moving on or deciding to let go? A pathway exploring the relationship between emotional and decisional forgiveness and intentional forgetting
    Moving on or deciding to let go? A pathway exploring the relationship between emotional and decisional forgiveness and intentional forgetting Noreen, Saima; MacLeod, Malcolm We report 3 empirical studies that represent the first systematic attempt to explore the relationship between emotional and decisional forgiveness and intentional forgetting. On this basis, we propose a model that provides a credible explanation for the relationship between forgiveness and forgetting. Specifically, we propose that engaging in emotional forgiveness promotes the psychological distancing of an offense, such that victims construe the offense at a higher and more abstract level. This high-level construal, in turn, promotes larger intentional forgetting effects, which, in turn, promote increased emotional forgiveness. Our studies found that participants in an emotional forgiveness manipulation reported increased psychological distance and recalled more high-level construals than did participants in either a decisional or no-forgiveness manipulation (Study 1). Using the list-method directed forgetting paradigm, we found that participants in an emotional forgiveness manipulation showed larger forgetting effects for both offense-relevant and -irrelevant information using both hypothetical (Study 2) and real-life (Study 3) moral transgressions compared with participants in either decisional or no-forgiveness manipulations. The potential implications of these findings for coping with unpleasant episodes in our lives are considered. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Individual and local flooding experiences are differentially associated with subjective attribution and climate change concern
    Individual and local flooding experiences are differentially associated with subjective attribution and climate change concern Ogunbode, Charles Adedayo; Doran, Rouven; Boehm, Gisela While several studies show an association between flooding experience and climate change engagement, a few show no evidence of such a link. Here, we explore the potential that this inconsistency relates to the measurement of flooding experience in terms of individual versus local experience, and the subsumption of multiple distinct constructs within composite indicators of climate change engagement. Using national survey data from Norway, we show that individual and local flooding experiences differentially predict subjective attribution and climate change concern. People with individual flooding experience reported significantly greater climate change concern than those with local, or no, flooding experience. Subjective attribution of flooding to climate change did not differ significantly between people with individual versus local flooding experience, except among those with a right-wing political orientation where individual experience was associated with greater subjective attribution. Our findings highlight the need for careful operationalisation of flooding experience and climate change engagement in subsequent research. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Materialism and Facebook usage: Could materialistic and non-materialistic values be linked to using Facebook differently?
    Materialism and Facebook usage: Could materialistic and non-materialistic values be linked to using Facebook differently? Rai, Roshan; Blocksidge, Jade; Cheng, Mei-I Materialism is a set of human values that places importance on the symbolic value of money or material goods. Furthermore, materialistic values have been associated with Internet usage, and also social media usage. The current research investigates this relationship further by specifically examining whether those with more materialistic values might use social media (Facebook) in different ways to those with less materialistic values. Self-report measures were collected from 108 participants. It was found that the higher the importance (extrinsic importance) attached to materialistic values, the more time spent posting photos, but the less time spent chatting on Facebook messenger and less time posting links. The higher the perceived likelihood (extrinsic likelihood) of achieving materialistic values, the more reported time posting status updates, but the less time spent chatting on Facebook messenger and less time posting links. Conversely, the higher the importance attached to non-materialistic values (intrinsic importance) the more reported time chatting on Facebook messenger, more time spent posting links, but less time spent posting photos. And the higher the reported likelihood of achieving non-materialistic values (intrinsic likelihood) the more reported time chatting on Facebook messenger, more time spent posting links, but less time spent posting status updates. However, neither self-reported time checking Facebook, nor self-reported attention paid to advertising were related to either materialistic or non-materialistic values. Overall, the findings indicate that certain activities on Facebook can be associated with both materialistic and non-materialistic values. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Distinct neural correlates of social and object reward seeking motivation
    Distinct neural correlates of social and object reward seeking motivation Dubey, Indu; Georgescu, Alexandra L.; Hommelsen, Maximilian; Vogeley, Kai; Ropar, Danielle; Hamilton, Antonia F. de C. The “Choose‐a‐Movie‐CAM” is an established task to quantify the motivation for seeking social rewards. It allows participants to directly assess both the stimulus value and the effort required to obtain it. In the present study, we aimed to identify the neural mechanisms of such cost‐benefit decision‐making. To this end, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging data were collected from 24 typical adults while they completed the CAM task. We partly replicated the results from our previous behavioural studies showing that typical adults prefer social over object stimuli and low effort over higher effort stimuli but found no interaction between the two. Results from neuroimaging data suggest that there are distinct neural correlates for social and object preferences. The precuneus and medial orbitofrontal cortex, two key areas involved in social processing are engaged when participants make a social choice. Areas of the ventral and dorsal stream pathways associated with object recognition are engaged when making an object choice. These activations can be seen during the decision phase even before the rewards have been consumed, indicating a transfer the hedonic properties of social stimuli to its cues. We also found that the left insula and bilateral clusters in the inferior occipital gyrus and the inferior parietal lobule were recruited for increasing effort investment. We discuss limitations and implications of this study which reveals the distinct neural correlates for social and object rewards, using a robust behavioural measure of social motivation. open access article
  • Perceived Stigma Towards Psychiatric Illnesses in Mental Health Trainees: A Cross-Sectional Study
    Perceived Stigma Towards Psychiatric Illnesses in Mental Health Trainees: A Cross-Sectional Study Dubey, Indu; Arivazhagan, K.; Sharma, Satyam; Sreeraj, V. S.; Uvais, N. A. Psychiatric disorders have always been seen as character disturbances and hence have always bore higher stigma than many other physical illnesses. In most of the cases the stigma is seen as negative stereotype arising out of poor awareness about the condition. In that case the stigma should reduce with the increase in the awareness about the condition. The current study focused upon exploring the stigma towards psychiatric disorders in the mental health trainees. A sample of 50 students of various mental health care training programs; clinical psychology, psychiatry, psychiatric social work and psychiatric nursing, were evaluated for their perceived stigma of psychiatric disorders using three versions of a tool developed to compare self-stigma, family-stigma, and social-stigma. Our results show that participants experienced significantly different levels of stigma for these levels (F (1.65, 81.26) = 56.64, p < 0.0001, ηp2 = 0.536), with highest level of stigma perceived in relation to self (M = 42.8, SE = 1.53) which was significantly more than both family (M = 30.78, SE = 1.19) and society (M = 29.76, SE = 1.24) conditions. The findings were same irrespective of the specialization i.e. clinical psychology, psychiatry etc. within mental health training programs. Further analysis about the group comparison among the mental health trainees suggested that psychiatric nursing group perceived significantly higher level of overall stigma than any other group of specialization. The findings indicate that better understanding of psychiatric condition alone might not eliminate the stigma attached to it. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Materialistic cues make us miserable: A meta‐analysis of the experimental evidence for the effects of materialism on individual and societal well‐being
    Materialistic cues make us miserable: A meta‐analysis of the experimental evidence for the effects of materialism on individual and societal well‐being Ku, L.; Moldes, Olaya Consumer‐oriented societies are awash with materialistic messages that link happiness and success to wealth and consumption. However, despite extensive research evidence that dispositional materialistic orientations are correlated with lower well‐being, the effects of materialistic cues on the well‐being of individuals and social groups have not been examined. The present research meta‐analytically reviews the experimental evidence for the causal effects of materialism on two dimensions of well‐being: (a) individual and (b) societal. We included 27 independent studies that met the inclusion criteria of priming materialism and measuring well‐being (N = 3,649), containing a total of 62 effect sizes. Multilevel modeling revealed that materialism has an effect on both individual (δ = −0.39) and societal well‐being (δ = −0.41), suggesting that materialistic cues cause lower well‐being. Moderation effects suggested that materialistic cues might have a higher effect on interpersonal well‐being than on self‐evaluation indicators. We discuss the limitations of the current evidence, highlight the research gaps and underdeveloped areas, and provide recommendations such as minimum sample size for future experimental work, since the advancement of this area will help us to gain a better understanding of the impact of consumer‐oriented societies on the well‐being of individuals and social groups. open access article
  • Are higher-order life values antecedents of students' learning engagement and adaptive learning outcomes? The case of materialistic vs. intrinsic life values
    Are higher-order life values antecedents of students' learning engagement and adaptive learning outcomes? The case of materialistic vs. intrinsic life values Ku, Lisbeth; Bernardo, Allan B. I.; Zaroff, Charles M. Materialistic values have been shown to have a negative effect on learning. As intrinsic life values such as self-acceptance are orthogonaltomaterialisticvalues,theymaycounteracttheeffectsofmaterialismandbenefitthelearningprocessbyencouraging a focus on the actual learning task itself, as opposed to emphasizing the rewards associated with learning (e.g., school grades). Therefore, we tested the hypotheses positing these two higher order life values as antecedents of engagement with the learning process, and of important learning outcomes, including actual academic performance. A total of 345 university students of Chinese ethnicity (211 females; mean age=18.89, SD =1.35) participated in two studies that utilized a three-wave longitudinal design over a three-month period. The main variables tested were materialistic values, intrinsic life values, engagement with learning, and actual performance (in a writing task in Study 1, and in a formal assessment, i.e., final exam, in Study 2). Results showed that materialistic values were longitudinally and negatively related with exam performance, but not with engagement withlearning.Incontrast,intrinsic life valueslongitudinallypredictedengagementwithlearning,andhad apositivedirecteffect on performance on the writing task (Study 1), and a positive indirect effect on final exam performance (Study 2). The results highlight an important, if underutilized method of improving the learning process. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Logic and uncertainty in the human mind: A tribute for David Over
    Logic and uncertainty in the human mind: A tribute for David Over Elqayam, Shira; Douven, Igor; Evans, Jonathan, St B T; Cruz, Nicole
  • The effectiveness of an interactive audio-tactile map for the process of cognitive mapping and recall among people with visual impairments
    The effectiveness of an interactive audio-tactile map for the process of cognitive mapping and recall among people with visual impairments Griffin, Edward; Picinali, Lorenzo; Scase, M. O. Background: People with visual impairments can experience numerous challenges navigating unfamiliar environments. Systems that operate as prenavigation tools can assist such individuals. This mixed-methods study examined the effectiveness of an interactive audio-tactile map tool on the process of cognitive mapping and recall, among people who were blind or had visual impairments. The tool was developed with the involvement of visually impaired individuals who additionally provided further feedback throughout this research. Methods: A mixed-methods experimental design was employed. Fourteen participants were allocated to either an experimental group who were exposed to an audiotactile map, or a control group exposed to a verbally annotated tactile map. After five minutes’ exposure, multiple-choice questions examined participants’ recall of the spatial and navigational content. Subsequent semi-structured interviews were conducted to examine their views surrounding the study and the product. Results: The experimental condition had significantly better overall recall than the control group and higher average scores in all four areas examined by the questions. The interviews suggested that the interactive component offered individuals the freedom to learn the map in several ways and did not restrict them to a sequential and linear approach to learning. Conclusion: Assistive technology can reduce challenges faced by people with visual impairments, and the flexible learning approach offered by the audio-tactile map may be of particular value. Future researchers and assistive technology developers may wish to explore this further. open access article
  • Methadone assisted opiate withdrawal and subsequent heroin abstinence: the importance of psychological preparedness
    Methadone assisted opiate withdrawal and subsequent heroin abstinence: the importance of psychological preparedness Jones, Steve; Jack, Barbara; Kirby, Julie; Wilson, Thomas L.; Murphy, Philip N. Background and objectives. Treatment guidelines emphasise patient readiness for transitioning from Opiate Substitution Treatment (OST) to opiate withdrawal and abstinence. Psychological preparedness indicators for this transition were examined. Methods. Patients (all male) were recruited from three treatment settings: prison, an inpatient detoxification unit, and an outpatient clinic. Time 1 (T1) was admission to methadone assisted withdrawal in all settings.Time 2 (T2) was a 6-month follow-up. With n = 24 at T1 for each group (N = 72), a battery of instruments relevant to psychological preparedness was administered. Results. At T1, inpatients had higher self-efficacy beliefs for successful treatment completion than prison patients. For patients contactable at T2, T1 self-efficacy positively predicted T2 opiate abstinence. No other variable improved prediction. T1 SOCRATES ambivalence scores, age and lifetime heroin use duration predicted maintenance of contact or not with treatment services and contactability by the researcher. Measures of mood did not differ between groups at T1 or predict T2 outcomes. Discussion and Conclusions. Self efficacy beliefs are a potentially useful indicator of readiness for transitioning from OST to a medically assisted opiate withdrawal and subsequent abstinence. Ambivalence regarding change, age, and lifetime heroin use duration are potentially useful predictors of patients maintaining contact with services,and of being retained in research. Scientific Significance. These findings advance existing literature and knowledge by highlighting the importance of self-efficacy in psychological preparedness for opiate abstinence, and the predictive utility to clinicians of this and other variables measurable at admission, in the clinical management of opiate users. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version.
  • Writing Lived Experience – A Melancholy Elegy
    Writing Lived Experience – A Melancholy Elegy Liu, Ying This paper explores the limitations of language in psychotherapeutic writing about lived experience and how psychanalytic concepts can help us both understand and work through the inevitable loss that results from these limitations. It is illustrated by the author’s experience of undertaking a doctoral research project in psychotherapy where the experience of narrative incoherence was explored through writing. Paralleled to the doctoral research project was the author’s challenges in writing the experience of incoherence. By reflecting on and analysing these challenges, this paper explores the sense of loss that is located at the core of writing lived experience through psychoanalytic concepts including the third position and melancholia. The limitations of language in capturing the fullness of lived experienced is shed light on. Connecting the psychoanalytic concept of melancholia to Romanyshyn’s (2013) writing as elegy, I propose writing lived experience as a melancholy elegy in which what is lost in language can be acknowledged and kept alive in the writer’s psyche. I argue for the creative potential brought by the continuous engagement with the sense of loss in writing lived experience. Reference: Romanyshyn, R.D. (2013). The wounded researcher: research with soul in mind. New Orleans, Louisiana: Spring Journal Books. open access journal
  • Fear of missing out predicts employee information security awareness above personality traits, age, and gender
    Fear of missing out predicts employee information security awareness above personality traits, age, and gender Hadlington, L.; Binder, J.; Stanulewicz, N. The role of human factors in employee information security awareness (ISA) has garnered increased attention, with many researchers highlighting a potential link between problematic technology use and poorer online safety and security. This study aimed to present additional evidence for this by exploring the relationship between of Fear of Missing Out (FoMO) and ISA in employees. A total of 718 participants completed an online questionnaire that included a measure of FoMO, ISA, as well as the Big Five personality inventory. Participants who reported higher levels of FoMO had lower overall ISA, as well as having poorer knowledge, a more negative attitude, and engaged in riskier behaviors in relation to ISA. FoMO was also demonstrated to be the largest single negative predictor for ISA, above that of age, gender, and the key personality traits tested. The potential reasons for the influence of FoMO over ISA are discussed, as well as the implications for organizational information security. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Ideology and international relations
    Ideology and international relations Gries, Peter; Yam, Paton Pak Chun What is the relationship between ideology and international relations (IR)? The extant literature focuses on how the former shapes the latter. Confrontation between Liberalism and Fascism, Communism, and Authoritarianism have sequentially structured IR over the past Century. While such all-encompassing Ideologies may unify the people of different nations in (often opposing) worldviews, liberal/left and conservative/right ideologies can divide citizens within nations. Dimensions of ideology like social dominance orientation (SDO) and right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) also shape international attitudes in distinct ways. These individual-level ideologies and their attendant worldviews shape state-level foreign policies and system-level IR (the micro–macro link) through elite decision-making and public opinion. An emerging literature also reverses the causal arrow, exploring how health, terrorism and other system-level threats can shape individual-level ideologies. This review essay should reveal the centrality of political psychology to IR: how ideologies powerfully shape the very worlds that we experience and act upon—and their vital role in driving war and peace. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Effect of sleep on memory for binding different types of visual information
    Effect of sleep on memory for binding different types of visual information Shaw, John J; Urgolites, Zhisen J; Monaghan, Padraic Visual long-term memory has a large and detailed storage capacity for individual scenes, objects, and actions. Sleep can enhance declarative memory of information, with sleep strengthening associations between item and context. However, the fidelity of the representation is currently underexplored. Experiments 1a and 1b tested effects of sleep on binding objects and scenes, and Experiments 2-3 tested binding of actions and scenes. Participants viewed composites and were tested 12-hours later after a delay consisting of sleep (9pm-9am) or wake (9am-9pm), on an alternative forced choice recognition task. For object-scene composites sleep did improve recognition compared to an equivalent period of wake. For action-scene composites, there was no significant effect observed, with recognition at chance level, suggesting issues with initial encoding. Sleep can promote binding in memory, depending on the type of information to be combined.
  • Pink Pearl
    Pink Pearl Scase, M. O.; Rai, Roshan; Farrington, J.; Burr, J.
  • Fearing Compassion Impacts Psychological Well-being but has no Effect on Physiological Indicators.
    Fearing Compassion Impacts Psychological Well-being but has no Effect on Physiological Indicators. Gill, Jasmin; Scase, M. O. Fearing Compassion Impacts Psychological Well-being but has no Effect on Physiological Indicators. Objective: Fears of compassion are feelings of threat towards receiving and giving kindness. This study examined the fears towards compassion on physiological responses during compassionate exercises. It has been argued that such fears are a barrier to a relaxation system normally reducing physiological activity but there has been no empirical evidence to support this. Exercises have been developed to increase compassion by activating a physiological soothing system, however if fears to compassion block the effectiveness of compassion then new methods may need to be developed to increase self-compassion. Participants and Methods: A non-clinical sample of sixty participants took part in two compassionate exercises. Heart rate and skin conductance were recorded during these exercises to indicate physiological activity. Social safeness, self-criticism and symptoms of depression were also assessed via the Fears of Compassion Scale, the Forms of Self-Criticism/Self-Reassuring Scale, the Social Safeness Scale and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS). Results: Multivariate analysis indicated there was no effect between high and low fears of compassion on both heart rate and skin conductance. However, social safeness and symptoms of mental illness were significantly affected by fears of compassion from psychological indicators of well-being, (F(3,56)= 5.721, p<.01, Wilks Lambda = .765, partial n2=.235). Independent analysis found differences in social safeness (F(1,58)= 14.46, p<.01, partial n2=.20) and DASS (F(1,58)= 6.53, p<.05, partial n2= .101). Social safeness was higher in the low fears of compassion group, 46.87 (SD= 6.06), whilst DASS was greater in the high fears group, 23.34 (SD=12.91). Conclusions: The findings did not support that fears are a barrier towards building compassion suggesting that compassionate exercises can be effective for both higher and lower fears of compassion. These results support a dynamic relationship between social safeness and fears towards compassion. The implications are that fears do not prevent activation of the self-soothing system but have an effect on social safeness and abnormal behaviour development.
  • SPEAKING THE UNSPOKEN AND UNSPEAKABLE: LIVING WITH THE AFTERMATH OF SIBLING ABORTION UNDER CHINA'S ONE-CHILD POLICY
    SPEAKING THE UNSPOKEN AND UNSPEAKABLE: LIVING WITH THE AFTERMATH OF SIBLING ABORTION UNDER CHINA'S ONE-CHILD POLICY Liu, Ying This is an autoethnographical paper on the experience of living with the aftermath of an abortion in my family due to China's One-Child Policy. My paper shows how the loss of a younger sibling has affected my personal life and how it is like to bring the unconscious grief into awareness. Moving between theories and personal experience, I seek to understand my experience of being a sibling abortion survivor under China’s One-Child Policy through the psychodynamic concept of melancholia, drawing particularly on conceptual resources offered by Freud, Leader and Kristeva. Links are made between the experience of losing an unborn sibling and melancholia which involves loss and grief that are unspeakable and unknowable. By presenting this paper, I seek to give voice to the Chinese generation that is affected by the One-Child Policy and whose voice is seldom heard. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the URI link.
  • Behind the rainbow, "Tongqi" wives of men who have sex with men in China: a systematic review
    Behind the rainbow, "Tongqi" wives of men who have sex with men in China: a systematic review Wang, Yuan Yuan; Wilson, Amanda D.; Chen, Runsen; Hu, Zhishan; Peng, Ke; Xu, Shicun Background: Due to the restrictions and stigmatization of homosexuality in China, there has emerged the “Tongqi,” or the wives of men who have sex with men (MSM). There are around 14 million Tongqi wives whose needs for support are often overshadowed. This phenomenon has been largely under researched, this review is the first to address the current data on the Tongqi. The aim of this systematic review is to begin to provide insight into the pre-existing data and the further support that is needed for the wives of MSM. Methods: The researchers searched PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CNKI, Sinomed and WangFang databases from their inception date until June 7, 2019. Handsearching was also completed to provide a rich data set. Results: The articles were summarized and analyzed for thematic clusters. From the selected article, five themes emerged, including Sexual Health Issues, Intimate Partner Violence, Mental Health Status, Marriage Dissatisfaction, and Coping Strategies. These themes often intersected to provide a complex understanding of the current gaps in support provided to Tongqi. Conclusion: Tongqi wives remain a hidden population in Chinese mainstream society, who deserves a sensitive approach to support. The study revealed that the MSM wives suffer severe mental, physical, health, and life related harms. However, instead of situating them into the victim roles, many women take on an identity of empowerment and are working together, aiming to make social changes. In order to address the Tongqi phenomenon, it is also essential to reduce the discrimination toward homosexuality. Tongqi are a special group of Chinese women, they require further intensive research attention. open access article
  • Disturbance at the Dinner Table: Exploring mothers’ experiences of mealtimes when caring for their son or daughter with anorexia nervosa
    Disturbance at the Dinner Table: Exploring mothers’ experiences of mealtimes when caring for their son or daughter with anorexia nervosa White, Hannah; Haycraft, Emma; Meyer, Caroline; Williamson, I. R. This study examined mothers’ (n=9) mealtime experiences when caring for their son or daughter with anorexia nervosa (AN) through semi-structured interviews. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis identified three themes: 1) Managing mealtime combat through accommodation and acceptance; 2) Feeling isolated, inauthentic and ill-equipped; 3) A need for understanding and to be understood. The overarching concepts of ‘combat’ and ‘distortion’ also underpin the analysis, uniquely outlining how mothers come to understand this daily situation. Mealtime-related interventions need to be developed which prioritise promoting skills and confidence in managing mealtimes and helping carers to address the emotional challenges of these occasions. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version.
  • Contrasting a Misinterpretation of the Reverse Contrast
    Contrasting a Misinterpretation of the Reverse Contrast Agostini, Tiziano; Murgia, Mauro; Sors, Fabrizio; Prpic, Valter; Galmonte, Alessandra The reverse contrast is a perceptual phenomenon in which the effect of the classical simultaneous lightness contrast is reversed. In classic simultaneous lightness contrast configurations, a gray surrounded by black is perceived lighter than an identical gray surrounded by white, but in the reverse contrast configurations, the perceptual outcome is the opposite: a gray surrounded by black appears darker than the same gray surrounded by white. The explanation provided for the reverse contrast (by different authors) is the belongingness of the gray targets to a more complex configuration. Different configurations show the occurrence of these phenomena; however, the factors determining this effect are not always the same. In particular, some configurations are based on both belongingness and assimilation, while one configuration is based only on belongingness. The evidence that different factors determine the reverse contrast is crucial for future research dealing with achromatic color perception and, in particular, with lightness induction phenomena. open access article
  • Lexical constraints on the prediction of form: Insights from the visual world paradigm
    Lexical constraints on the prediction of form: Insights from the visual world paradigm Kukona, Anuenue Two visual world experiments investigated the priming of form (e.g., phonology) during language processing. In Experiment 1, participants heard high cloze probability sentences like “In order to have a closer look, the dentist asked the man to open his…” while viewing visual arrays with objects like a predictable target mouth, phonological competitor mouse and unrelated distractors. In Experiment 2, participants heard target-associated nouns like “dentist” that were isolated from the sentences in Experiment 1 while viewing the same visual arrays. In both experiments, participants fixated the target (e.g., mouth) most, but also fixated the phonological competitor (e.g., mouse) more than unrelated distractors. Taken together, these results are interpreted as supporting association-based mechanisms in prediction, such that activation spreads across both semantics and form within the mental lexicon (e.g., dentist-mouth-mouse) and likewise primes (i.e., pre-activates) the form of upcoming words during sentence processing. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • An Ear And Eye For Language: Mechanisms Underlying Second Language Word Learning
    An Ear And Eye For Language: Mechanisms Underlying Second Language Word Learning Bisson, M. J.; Baker-Kukona, Anuenue; Lengeris, Angelos To become fluent in a second language, learners need to acquire a large vocabulary. However, the cognitive and affective mechanisms that support word learning, particularly among second language learners, are only beginning to be understood. Prior research has focused on intentional learning and small artificial lexicons. In the current study investigating the sources of individual variability in word learning and their underlying mechanisms, participants intentionally and incidentally learned a large vocabulary of Welsh words (i.e., emulating word learning in the wild) and completed a large battery of cognitive and affective measures. The results showed that for both learning conditions, native language knowledge, auditory/phonological abilities and orthographic sensitivity all made unique contributions to word learning. Importantly, short-term/working memory played a significantly larger role in intentional learning. We discuss these results in the context of the mechanisms that support both native and non-native language learning. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version.
  • A SNARC-like effect for music notation: The role of expertise and musical instrument
    A SNARC-like effect for music notation: The role of expertise and musical instrument Fumarola, Antonia; Prpic, Valter; Luccio, Riccardo; Umilta, Carlo The Spatial-Numerical Association of Response Codes (SNARC) suggests the existence of an association between number magnitude and response location, with faster left key-press responses to small numbers and faster right key-press responses to large numbers. We investigated whether a similar association exists between musical notes on the stave and the space of response execution, involving amateur and expert musicians (Experiment 1). Moreover, in Experiment 2 we further investigated such association in two groups of expert musicians (piano and transverse flute players) who differ in the note mapping on their instruments. Results indicate a clear association between musical notes and the space of response execution only for musicians with formal education. Furthermore, this association seems not to be influenced by the specific instrument played, as both piano and transverse flute players showed the same effect direction (left key-press advantage for low notes, and vice versa). The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version.
  • Large as being on top of the world and small as hitting the roof: A shared magnitude representation for the comparison of emotions and numbers
    Large as being on top of the world and small as hitting the roof: A shared magnitude representation for the comparison of emotions and numbers Baldassi, Giulio; Murgia, Mauro; Prpic, Valter; Rigutti, Sara; Domijan, Drazen; Agostini, Tiziano; Fantoni, Carlo Previous work on the direct Speed–Intensity Association (SIA) on comparative judgment tasks involved spatially distributed responses over spatially distributed stimuli with high motivational significance like facial expressions of emotions. This raises the possibility that the inferred stimulus-driven regulation of lateralized motor reactivity described by SIA, which was against the one expected on the basis of a valence-specific lateral bias, was entirely due to attentional capture from motivational significance (beyond numerical cognition). In order to establish the relevance of numerical cognition on the regulation of attentional capture we ran two complementary experiments. These involved the same direct comparison task on stimulus pairs that were fully comparable in terms of their analog representation of intensity but with different representational domain and motivational significance: symbolic magnitudes with low motivational significance in experiment 1 vs. emotions with rather high motivational significance in experiment 2. The results reveal a general SIA and point to a general mechanism regulating comparative judgments. This is based on the way spatial attention is captured toward locations that contain the stimulus which is closest in term of relative intensity to the extremal values of the series, regardless from its representational domain being it symbolic or emotional The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Where are our ancestors? Rethinking Trobriand cosmology
    Where are our ancestors? Rethinking Trobriand cosmology Jarillo, Sergio; Darrah, Allan; Crivelli, Carlos; Mkwesipu, Camillus; Kalubaku, Kenneth; Toyagena, Nagia; Okwala, Gumwemwata; Gumwemwata, Justin Reincarnation has been a fundamental tenet of anthropologists’ representations of Trobriand cosmology since Bronislaw Malinowski published “Baloma; The spirits of the dead in the Trobriand Islands” in 1916. Yet, during recent ethnographic fieldwork, many Trobrianders repeatedly denied the possibility of rebirth. Faced with a potential major shift in this fundamental belief, we used a mix of quantitative and qualitative research methods to assess current Trobriand cosmological views. Drawing on a combination of structured and semi-structured interviews and focus groups, we tested the current validity of prior cosmological representations as found in the literature. In this article, we first analyze the results of the questionnaires. Second, we examine some of the implications that current beliefs have for Trobriand kinship and cosmology. And third, in light of the observed near universal negation of reincarnation, we discuss whether Trobrianders’ reported assumptions about the afterlife changed drastically in the last century or if Malinowski misrepresented them from the outset. open access journal
  • Activating semantic knowledge during spoken words and environmental sounds: Evidence from the visual world paradigm
    Activating semantic knowledge during spoken words and environmental sounds: Evidence from the visual world paradigm Toon, Josef; Kukona, Anuenue Two visual world experiments investigated the activation of semantically related concepts during the processing of environmental sounds and spoken words. Participants heard environmental sounds such as barking or spoken words such as “puppy” while viewing visual arrays with objects such as a bone (semantically related competitor) and candle (unrelated distractor). In Experiment 1, a puppy (target) was also included in the visual array; in Experiment 2, it was not. During both types of auditory stimuli, competitors were fixated significantly more than distractors, supporting the co-activation of semantically related concepts in both cases; comparisons of the two types of auditory stimuli also revealed significantly greater effects with environmental sounds than spoken words. We discuss implications of these results for theories of semantic knowledge. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Effectiveness of Lifestyle Health Promotion Interventions for Nurses: A Systematic Review
    Effectiveness of Lifestyle Health Promotion Interventions for Nurses: A Systematic Review Stanulewicz, Natalia; Knox, Emily; Narayanasamy, Melanie; Shivji, Noureen; Khunti, Kamlesh; Blake, Holly Background: Prior research has investigated various strategies to improve health, wellbeing and the job-related outcomes of nurses. However, the scope of this evidence is not clear and the types of intervention most likely to have positive outcomes are unknown. Objective: To provide an overview and synthesis of the effectiveness of interventions conducted with the goal of improving health, wellbeing and the job-related outcomes of nurses. Methods: A systematic database search was conducted from January 2000 to December 2018, with pre-defined criteria (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; MEDLINE and PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; PsycINFO; and BioMed Central). In total, 136 intervention studies with a total sample of 16,129 participants (range 9–3381) were included and evaluated. Data extraction, quality assessment and risk of bias analyses were performed. Results: Studies included randomised controlled trials (RCTs; n = 52, 38%), randomised crossover design studies (n = 2, 1.5%) and non-randomised pre-post studies with a control group (n = 31, 23%) and without a control group (n = 51, 37.5%). The majority of interventions focused on education, physical activity, mindfulness, or relaxation. Thirty-seven (27%) studies had a multimodal intervention approach. On average, studies had relatively small samples (median = 61; mode = 30) and were conducted predominantly in North America (USA/Canada, n = 53). The findings were mixed overall, with some studies reporting benefits and others finding no effects. Dietary habits was the most successfully improved outcome (8/9), followed by indices of body composition (20/24), physical activity (PA) (11/14), and stress (49/66), with >70% of relevant studies in each of these categories reporting improvements. The lowest success rate was for work-related outcomes (16/32). Separate analysis of RCTs indicated that interventions that focus solely on education might be less likely to result in positive outcomes than interventions targeting behavioural change. Conclusions: Interventions targeting diet, body composition, PA, or stress are most likely to have positive outcomes for nurses’ health and/or wellbeing. The methodologically strongest evidence (RCTs) is available for body composition and stress. Interventions relying solely on educational approaches are least likely to be effective. Organisational outcomes appear to be more challenging to change with lifestyle intervention, likely requiring more complex solutions including changes to the work environment. There is a need for more high-quality evidence since many studies had moderate or high risk of bias and low reporting quality. open access article
  • Teaching using contextualised and decontextualised representations: examining the case of differential calculus through a comparative judgement technique
    Teaching using contextualised and decontextualised representations: examining the case of differential calculus through a comparative judgement technique Gilmore, Camilla; Inglis, Matthew; Jones, Ian; Bisson, M. J. An ongoing debate concerns whether novel mathematical concepts are better learned using contextualised or decontextualised representations. A barrier to resolving this debate, and therefore to progress in the discipline, has been the paucity of validated methods of measuring students’ understanding of mathematical concepts. We developed an innovative and efficient method for measuring, in experimental settings, students’ understanding of any mathematical concept using comparative judgement. We demonstrate the method by applying it to the comparison of learning outcomes from two teaching conditions. Participants (260 15–16 year olds across six schools) were introduced to differential calculus using contextualised or decontextualised representations. We then assessed participants’ comparative conceptual understanding of derivatives. We found evidence that contextualised and decontextualised representations were equally effective at promoting student learning in this context. The assessment method yielded valid and reliable results, suggesting that it offers a robust and efficient approach for the problem of assessing conceptual understanding in experimental or other comparative settings. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Mental health outcomes among Chinese prenatal and postpartum women after the implementation of universal two-child policy
    Mental health outcomes among Chinese prenatal and postpartum women after the implementation of universal two-child policy Lu, Li; Duan, Zhizhou; Wang, Yuan Yuan; Wilson, Amanda D.; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Longjun; Guo, Yan; Yonglang, Lv; Yang, Xiaonan; Yu, Renjie; Wang, Shuilan; Wu, Zhengyan; Jiang, Ping; Xia, Mengqing; Wang, Guosheng; Wang, Xuixia; Tao, Ye; Li, Xiaohong; Ma, Ling; Huang, Liming; Dong, Qin; Shen, Hong; Sun, Jue; Li, Shun; Deng, Wei; Chen, Runsen Background Poor health status among both pregnant and postpartum women is commonly reported worldwide. The associations between mental health outcomes and giving birth to the second child since the implementation of China's universal two-child policy have not been identified. Methods A large-scale based mental health survey was conducted between March 2017 and December 2018 in Suzhou, China. The survey evaluated the symptoms of anxiety, hypomania, depression and poor sleep quality among both pregnant and postpartum women. Results A total of 3,113 questionnaires were collected, the prevalence of anxiety, hypomanic and depressive symptoms and poor sleep quality in our sample were 3.2% (95%CI: 2.6%-3.9%), 51.7% (95%CI: 49.9%-53.4%), 12.4% (95%CI: 11.3%-13.6%) and 37.8% (95%CI: 36.0%-39.5%), respectively. Logistic regression showed that giving birth to the second child was positively associated with women's age, and was negatively correlated with higher educational level and living in rented housing. Women with the second pregnancy or child were positively associated with anxiety symptoms in the whole sample (OR=1.75, 95%CI: 1.11-2.75) and among prenatal women (OR=2.11, 95%CI: 1.16-3.83), while it was inversely correlated with depressive symptoms among postpartum women (OR=0.63, 95%CI: 0.41-0.99). Conclusions Women giving birth a second time were more prone to have anxiety symptoms among the prenatal women and the whole sample, and less likely to have depressive symptoms among the postpartum women. Efficacious measures and interventions are essential to improve maternal mental health. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Exposure to the IPCC special report on 1.5°C global warming is linked to perceived threat and increased concern about climate change
    Exposure to the IPCC special report on 1.5°C global warming is linked to perceived threat and increased concern about climate change Ogunbode, Charles Adedayo; Doran, Rouven; Bohm, Gisela This article investigates the influence of exposure to the IPCC special report on 1.5°C global warming on climate change attitudes. Among a nationally representative sample of the Norwegian public, we found that exposure to the report is associated with greater perceived threat from climate change and increased climate change concern. However, this association was modestly moderated by political orientation. Exposure to the report had a weaker association with perceived threat and climate change concern among politically right-leaning individuals, compared with their left-leaning counterparts, and there was no association between exposure to the report and climate change concern among individuals who self-identified as being on the far-right end of the political spectrum. We conclude that, despite the commonly observed tendency for biased assimilation of climate change information and polarisation of opinion among the public, scientific communication regarding climate risks may still have a viable role to play in promoting climate change engagement and action. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • The influence of front‐of‐pack portion size images on children's serving and intake of cereal
    The influence of front‐of‐pack portion size images on children's serving and intake of cereal McGale, Lauren; Smits, Tim; Harrold, Joanne; Halford, Jason; Boyland, Emma ackground Consumption of large portions of energy‐dense foods promotes weight gain in children. Breakfast cereal boxes often show portions much larger than the recommended serving size. Objective This experimental study investigated whether front‐of‐package portion size depictions influence children's self‐served portions and consumption. Methods In a between‐subjects design, 41 children aged 7‐11 years (M= 9.0 ± 1.5y) served themselves breakfast cereal from a box, the front of which depicted either a recommended serving size of cereal (30g) or a larger, more typical front‐of‐pack portion (90g). Cereal served and consumed and total caloric intake (including milk) was recorded. Height and weight, demographic information and measures of children's food responsiveness and enjoyment of food were collected. Results MANOVA revealed that children exposed to the larger portion size served themselves (+7g, 37%) and consumed (+6g, 63%) significantly more cereal than those exposed to the smaller portion. Despite this, overall caloric intake (milk included) did not differ between conditions, and no other measured variables (hunger, BMI) significantly affected the outcomes. Conclusion This study provides novel evidence of the influence portion‐size depictions on food packaging have on children's eating behaviour. This offers possible avenues for intervention and policy change; however, more research is needed. open access article
  • An fMRI Study of Response and Semantic Conflict in the Stroop Task
    An fMRI Study of Response and Semantic Conflict in the Stroop Task Parris, Benjamin; Wadsley, Michael; Hasshim, Nabil; Benattayallah, Abdelmalek; Augustinova, Maria; Ferrand, Ludovic An enduring question in selective attention research is whether we can successfully ignore an irrelevant stimulus and at what point in the stream of processing we are able to select the appropriate source of information. Using methods informed by recent research on the varieties of conflict in the Stroop task the present study provides evidence for specialized functions of regions of the frontoparietal network in processing response and semantic conflict during Stroop task performance. Specifically, we used trial types and orthogonal contrasts thought to better independently measure response and semantic conflict and we presented the trial types in pure blocks to maximize response conflict and therefore better distinguish between the conflict types. Our data indicate that the left inferior PFC plays an important role in the processing of both response and semantic (or stimulus) conflict, whilst regions of the left parietal cortex (BA40) play an accompanying role in response, but not semantic, conflict processing. Moreover, our study reports a role for the right mediodorsal thalamus in processing semantic, but not response, conflict. In none of our comparisons did we observe activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a finding we ascribe to the use of blocked trial type presentation and one that has implications for theories of ACC function. open access article
  • Wanting to Be Happy but Not Knowing How: Poor Attentional Control and Emotion-Regulation Abilities Mediate the Association Between Valuing Happiness and Depression
    Wanting to Be Happy but Not Knowing How: Poor Attentional Control and Emotion-Regulation Abilities Mediate the Association Between Valuing Happiness and Depression Kahriz, Bahram; Glover, Francesca; Vogt, Julia; Bower, Joanne L. Recent studies suggest that valuing happiness is associated with negative psychological health outcomes, including increased depression, in US samples. We aimed to replicate these associations in two studies at a UK university (Nstudy one = 151, and Nstudy two = 299). Importantly, we also investigated the role of emotional attentional control and habitual emotion regulation in the relationship between valuing happiness and depression. In both studies, we found that valuing happiness was related to increased depression, confirming the link between valuing happiness and depression in a Western country outside of the USA. Moreover, our findings indicated that the relationship between valuing happiness and depression was strongest in British, rather than non-British participants or participants of dual nationality. Further, our findings revealed that valuing happiness and depression were indirectly associated via the ability to control attention in emotional situations, perceived ability to savor positive experiences, and the extent to which positive emotions feel intrusive. Specifically, increased valuing happiness was associated with lower emotion attention control and lower savoring of positive experiences, which in turn was related to depressive symptoms. These results show that the impaired ability to respond adaptively to emotional situations and to enjoy positive events may underlie the paradoxical relationship between valuing happiness and low well-being. open access article
  • Sleep deprivation impairs affordance perception behavior during an action boundary accuracy assessment
    Sleep deprivation impairs affordance perception behavior during an action boundary accuracy assessment Connaboy, Christopher; LaGoy, Alice; Johnson, Caleb; Sinnott, Aaron; Eagle, Shawn; Pepping, Gert-Jan; Simpson, Richard; Alfano, Candice; Bower, Joanne L. Objectives: Astronauts must adapt behaviors to changing affordances (action possibilities) when exposed to operational stressors such as sleep deprivation. The inability to correctly perceive affordances may cause astronauts to attempt behaviors that place them at greater risk. This study investigated the effects of sleep deprivation on affordance perception performance during 30-day NASA Human Exploration Research Analog missions. Methods: Sixteen participants completed a perception-action coupling task (PACT) over days 22-25 of the missions. Participants completed sessions on day 22 (1800) and 24 (1200 and 1730) under normal sleep conditions and sessions on day 25 (0430, 1200 and 1445) after a night of sleep deprivation. During PACT, participants judge whether virtual balls afford posting (can fit) through virtual apertures. The ratio of ball-to-aperture size ranges from 0.2-1.8 (afforded trials <1, unafforded trials >1). A two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze the effect of time and trial type (afforded versus unafforded) on response time (RST) and accuracy (ACC). Results: For RST, significant main effects of time (F2.666, 39.984 = 7.685, p = .001) and trial type (F1, 15 = 17.554, p = .001) were observed. Afforded RST was greater than unafforded RST. ACC decreased across time (F2.724, 20.939 = 5.137, p = 0.005) but did not differ between trial types. No significant interaction effects were observed. Conclusion: Decrements in affordance-based behaviors were observed under increasing levels of sleep deprivation and subjects responded slower to trials where the task-specific affordance was available. These decrements may relate to changes in operational performance. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Social media impacts the relation between interpersonal conflict and job performance
    Social media impacts the relation between interpersonal conflict and job performance Jiang, Feng; Lu, Su; Zhu, Xiji; Song, Xin Previous research has predominantly focused on the effects of cognitive and emotional reactions on the relation between interpersonal conflict and job performance. The effects of behavioral reactions, however, have been largely ignored. To fill this gap, this study aims to investigate how behavioral reactions indexed by Wechat use affects the above relation. Specifically, demand-control-support theory and demand-control-person theory form the basis for a stressor–strain model and a joint investigation of 1) Wechat use as mediating the link between interpersonal conflict with job performance and 2) relatedness need satisfaction and emotional social support as moderating the mediation. A moderated mediation model is tested with matched data collected thrice from 300 subordinates and their supervisors. Results highlight the importance of behavioral mechanisms and state-like individual differences when examining the relationships between interpersonal conflict and job performance. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • The effectiveness of a social media intervention for reducing portion sizes in young adults and adolescents
    The effectiveness of a social media intervention for reducing portion sizes in young adults and adolescents Blundell-Birtill, Pam; Sharps, Maxine; Hetherington, M. M.; Rolls, Barbara J.; Evans, Charlotte E.L. Abstract Objective: Adolescents and young adults select larger portions of energy-dense food than recommended. The majority of young people have a social media profile, and peer influence on social media may moderate the size of portions selected. Methods: Two pilot-interventions examined whether exposure to images of peers’ portions of high-energy-dense (HED) snacks and sugar-sweetened-beverages (SSBs) on social media (Instagram) would influence reported desired portions selected on a survey. Confederate peers posted ‘their’ portions of HED snacks and SSBs on Instagram. At baseline and intervention end participants completed surveys that assessed desired portion sizes. Results: In intervention 1, Undergraduate students (N=20, Mean age=19.0y, SD=0.65y) participated in a two-week intervention in a within-subjects design. Participants reported smaller desired portions of HED snacks and SSBs following the intervention, and smaller desired portions of HED snacks for their peers. In intervention 2, adolescents (N=44, Mean age=14.4y, SD=1.06y) participated in a four-week intervention (n=23) or control condition (n=21) in a between-subjects design. Intervention 2 did not influence adolescents to reduce their desired reported portion sizes of HED snacks or SSBs relative to control. Conclusions: These preliminary studies demonstrated that social media is a feasible way to communicate with young people. However, while the intervention influenced young adults’ reported desired portions and social norms regarding their peers’ portions, no significant impact on desired reported portion sizes was found for HED snacks and SSBs in adolescents. Desired portion sizes of some foods and beverages may be resistant to change via a social media intervention in this age group. open access journal
  • When robots tell you what to do: Sense of agency in human- and robot-guided actions
    When robots tell you what to do: Sense of agency in human- and robot-guided actions Barlas, Zeynep The present study investigated the sense of agency (SoA) when actions were determined by another human vs. a humanoid robot as compared to when freely selected. Additionally, perceived robot-autonomy was manipulated via autonomous vs. non-autonomous descriptions of the robot. SoA was assessed by judgment of control ratings and intentional binding (i.e., perceived temporal attraction between voluntary actions and their outcomes). Participants performed free and instructed key presses that produced an auditory tone (Experiment-1) and visual stimuli conveying neutral, positive, or negative valence (Experiment-2). Binding and control ratings were greater in free compared to instructed actions, and comparable between human- and robot-instructed actions. Control ratings were higher for positive compared to neutral and negative outcomes, and positively correlated with ratings of how human-like the robot appeared. These results highlight the role of endogenous processing of action selection and provide preliminary insight into the SoA when actions are guided by artificial agents. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Using pictorial nudges of fruit and vegetables on tableware to increase children’s fruit and vegetable consumption
    Using pictorial nudges of fruit and vegetables on tableware to increase children’s fruit and vegetable consumption Sharps, Maxine; Thomas, Eleanor; Blissett, Jacqueline Children’s fruit and vegetable consumption is lower than recommended. Increasing consumption is important for children’s health. Nudges influence children’s eating behaviour, but less is known about the influence of a pictorial nudge on tableware on children’s fruit and vegetable consumption. Two studies examined this. Study 1 examined whether a pictorial fruit nudge (a grape image) on a plate influenced children’s fruit (grape) consumption relative to a control condition (no image). In a between-subjects design, children (n=63, Mean age=8.9 years, SD=1.41, 38 females, 25 males, 73% had a healthy-weight) were randomly assigned to one of two conditions (fruit nudge vs. control). Study 2 examined the influence of a large portion pictorial nudge (a large portion carrot image) vs. a small portion pictorial nudge (a small portion carrot image) vs. control (no nudge) on children’s vegetable (carrot) consumption. In a between-subjects design, children (n=59, Mean age=8.57 years, SD=2.13, 31 females, 28 males, 85% had a healthy-weight) were randomly assigned to a condition. In Study 1 children consumed significantly more fruit in the pictorial nudge condition than the control condition. In Study 2 children ate significantly more vegetables in the large portion pictorial nudge condition than the other two conditions. The small portion pictorial nudge did not affect children’s vegetable consumption relative to control. The results indicate that pictorial nudges on tableware influence children’s fruit and vegetable consumption, and the portion size of this type of nudge may be key to whether it influences children’s eating behaviour. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Breast cancer and hair loss: Experiential similarities and differences in men and women's narratives
    Breast cancer and hair loss: Experiential similarities and differences in men and women's narratives Trusson, D; Quincey, Kerry Background: There are relatively few studies comparing men and women’s breast cancer experiences. Furthermore, men’s experiences of cancer treatment-induced alopecia have received scant academic attention compared to those of women. Objective: To explore experiences of treatment-induced alopecia in both sexes and highlight ways in which they might be supported when undergoing breast cancer treatment. Methods: Qualitative interviews and photographic data taken from two separate experiential inquiries were analysed together, focussing on references made to treatment-induced alopecia in women’s and men’s breast cancer accounts. Results: Hair loss was described as distressing by both sexes, affecting gendered identities and relationships. Men typically discussed losing body hair, whereas women rarely referred to body hair explicitly, underlining gendered aspects of their experiences. Differences were noted in coping strategies, with men using humour and asserting their masculinity. Women were better able to disguise hair loss, while men were forced to reveal their hairlessness. Conclusions: The findings contribute a nuanced understanding of the experience of treatment-induced alopecia for both men and women, which will help to improve their care during cancer treatment. Implications for Practice: Healthcare professionals should provide information about the possible implications of cancer-related alopecia for identities and social relationships for both sexes. Highlighting marked gender differences in cancer-related hair loss, advice and support specific to men’s needs would be particularly beneficial, enabling greater gender equality in clinical practice. Understanding the coping strategies employed by both sexes in relation to hair loss will help healthcare professionals to identify and address any underlying patient distress. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version
  • Effects of social and outcome expectancies on hazardous drinking among Chinese university students: The mediating role of drinking motivations
    Effects of social and outcome expectancies on hazardous drinking among Chinese university students: The mediating role of drinking motivations Zhang, Meng Xuan; Ku, L.; Wu, Anise M. S.; Yu, Shu M.; Pesigan, Ivan J. A. Background and Objectives: Based on the theory of reasoned action, the present study investigated the relative effects of drinking outcome expectancies and parental norms, as well as the mediating effect of drinking motivations, on hazardous drinking in Chinese university students. Method: A sample of Chinese university students in Hong Kong and Macao (N = 973, M=19.82, SD=1.57, 48.9% males), who reported drinking in the past 3 months, voluntarily completed an anonymous questionnaire. Path analysis was used to test the effects of the variables on hazardous drinking. Results: All the psychosocial variables showed positive correlations with hazardous drinking. In the path model, controlling for sex, parental norms had both direct and indirect effects on hazardous drinking through social and enhancement motivations. Courage had the strongest indirect effect on drinking behavior through social, enhancement, and coping motivations, whereas the relationship between tension reduction and hazardous drinking was mediated by enhancement and coping motivations. Sociality and sexuality only had indirect effect through social and coping motivations respectively. Negative outcome expectancies had no direct nor indirect effects on hazardous drinking. Conclusions: Perceived approval from parents and positive alcohol outcome expectancies may enhance individuals’ tendency to engage in hazardous drinking by increasing their motivation to drink to be social, for enjoyment, and to cope with problems. Parents should explicitly show their disapproval of their children’s drinking, and education efforts should focus on decreasing positive outcome expectancies and associated motivations for drinking among Chinese university students. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • A serious game to explore human foraging in a 3D environment
    A serious game to explore human foraging in a 3D environment Prpic, Valter; Kniestedt, Isabelle; Camilleri, Elizabeth; Maureira, Marcello Gomez; Kristjansson, Arni; Thornton, Ian M. Traditional search tasks have taught us much about vision and attention. Recently, several groups have begun to use multiple-target search to explore more complex and temporally extended “foraging” behaviour. Many of these new foraging tasks, however, maintain the simplified 2D displays and response demands associated with traditional, single-target visual search. In this respect, they may fail to capture important aspects of real-world search or foraging behaviour. In the current paper, we present a serious game for mobile platforms in which human participants play the role of an animal foraging for food in a simulated 3D environment. Game settings can be adjusted, so that, for example, custom target and distractor items can be uploaded, and task parameters, such as the number of target categories or target/distractor ratio are all easy to modify. We demonstrate how the app can be used to address specific research questions by conducting two human foraging experiments. Our results indicate that in this 3D environment, a standard feature/conjunction manipulation does not lead to a reduction in foraging runs, as it is known to do in simple, 2D foraging tasks. Differences in foraging behaviour are discussed in terms of environment structure, task demands and attentional constraints. open access journal
  • Investigating the mediating effect of working memory on intentional forgetting in dysphoria
    Investigating the mediating effect of working memory on intentional forgetting in dysphoria Noreen, Saima; Cooke, Richard; Ridout, Nathan Our aim was to determine if deficits in intentional forgetting that are associated with depression and dysphoria (subclinical depression) could be explained, at least in part, by variations in working memory function. Sixty dysphoric and 61 non-dysphoric participants completed a modified version of the think/no-think (TNT) task and a measure of complex working memory (the operation span task). The TNT task involved participants learning a series of emotional cue–target word pairs, before being presented with a subset of the cues and asked to either recall the associated target (think) or to prevent it from coming to mind (no think) by thinking about a substitute target word. Participants were subsequently asked to recall the targets to all cues (regardless of previous recall instructions). As expected, after controlling for anxiety, we found that dysphoric individuals exhibited impaired forgetting relative to the non-dysphoric participants. Also as expected, we found that superior working memory function was associated with more successful forgetting. Critically, in the dysphoric group, we found that working memory mediated the effect of depression on intentional forgetting. That is, depression influenced forgetting indirectly via its effect on working memory. However, under conditions of repeated suppression, there was also a direct effect of depression on forgetting. These findings represent an important development in the understanding of impaired forgetting in depression and also suggest that working memory training might be a viable intervention for improving the ability of depressed individuals to prevent unwanted memories from coming to mind. open access article
  • Development of and adherence to a gamified environment promoting health and wellbeing in older people with mild cognitive impairment
    Development of and adherence to a gamified environment promoting health and wellbeing in older people with mild cognitive impairment Scase, M. O.; Marandure, B. N. Overview and aims: This project aimed to promote active aging by delivering tasks via a tablet computer to participants aged 65-80 with mild cognitive impairment. The aims were to develop an age-appropriate gamified environment and to assess application adherence through an intervention. Methods: The gamified environment was developed through a series of three iterative user-centered focus groups. Adherence was assessed by the time spent engaging with applications over 47 days supplemented with participant interviews. There were two groups of participants: one of 11 people living in a retirement village (1 male; mean age=75.4, SD=5.14; mean MoCA=26.0, SD=2.28) and the other of 13 people living separately across a city (1 male; mean age=74.9, SD=3.68; mean MoCA=24.4, SD=1.19). Results: There was a significant difference in the mean number of sessions for retirement village participants (mean=29.1, SD=14.8) and those living separately (mean=8.8, SD=7.5), adjusted t(14.3)=4.1, p=0.001 with retirement village participants engaging in three times the number of game sessions compared to the other group possibly because of different between group social arrangements. Interview thematic analysis at follow-up revealed that participants enjoyed the social aspects of the project, liked computer games and engaging in them made them feel better. Discussion and Conclusions: An age-appropriate user-designed gamified environment can help older people with mild cognitive impairment engage in computer-based applications and can impact them positively. However, social and community factors influence adherence in a longer-term intervention.
  • Conditionals and Inferential Connections: Toward a New Semantics
    Conditionals and Inferential Connections: Toward a New Semantics Douven, Igor; Elqayam, Shira; Singmann, Henrik; van Wijnbergen-Huitink, Janneke In previous published research (“Conditionals and Inferential Connections: A Hypothetical Inferential Theory,” Cognitive Psychology, 2018), we investigated experimentally what role the presence and strength of an inferential connection between a conditional’s antecedent and consequent plays in how people process that conditional. Our analysis showed the strength of that connection to be strongly predictive of whether participants evaluated the conditional as true, false, or neither true nor false. In this paper, we re-analyze the data from our previous research, now focusing on the semantics of conditionals rather than on how they are processed. Specifically, we use those data to compare the main extant semantics with each other and with inferentialism, a semantics according to which the truth of a conditional requires the presence of an inferential connection between the conditional’s component parts. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Using repeated visual exposure, rewards and modelling in a mobile application to increase vegetable acceptance in children
    Using repeated visual exposure, rewards and modelling in a mobile application to increase vegetable acceptance in children Farrow, C.; Belcher, E.; Coulthard, Helen; Thomas, J.M.; Lumsden, J.; Hakobyan, L.; Haycraft, E. Children are not consuming the recommended amounts of fruit and vegetables. Repeated visual exposure, modelling, and rewards have been shown to be effective at increasing vegetable acceptance in young children. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an evidence-based mobile application (Vegetable Maths Masters) which builds on these principles to increase children’s liking and acceptance of vegetables. Seventy-four children (37 male, 37 female) aged 3-6 years old were randomised to play with either the vegetable app or a similar control app that did not include any foods. Children played their allocated game for 10 minutes. Liking and acceptance of the vegetables used in Vegetable Maths Masters (carrot and sweetcorn) and other vegetables which were not used in the game (yellow pepper and tomato) were measured pre- and post-play in both groups. Parents provided data about their child’s food fussiness and previous exposure to the foods being used. Children who played with the Vegetable Maths Masters app consumed significantly more vegetables after playing with the app and reported significant increases in their liking of vegetables, relative to the control group. The effect of the Vegetable Maths Masters app on the change in consumption of vegetables was mediated by the change in liking of vegetables. These findings suggest that evidence-based mobile apps can provide an effective tool for increasing children’s liking and consumption of vegetables in the short-term. Further work is now required to establish whether these effects are maintained over time. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Poor Sleep and Emotion Dysregulation Mediate the Association between Depressive and Premenstrual Symptoms in Young Adult Women
    Poor Sleep and Emotion Dysregulation Mediate the Association between Depressive and Premenstrual Symptoms in Young Adult Women Meers, J. M.; Bower, Joanne L.; Alfano, Candice A. Purpose: A large portion of reproductive-aged women report experiencing distressing premenstrual symptoms. These symptoms can be exacerbated by concurrent mood problems and contribute to long-term depressive risk. However, difficulty sleeping and regulating emotional responses are also associated with the premenstrual phase and represent additional, well-established risk factors for depression. The aim of this study was to investigate whether habitual sleep problems and emotion regulation strategies serve to mediate the relationship between mood and premenstrual symptoms in non-treatment seeking young women. Methods: Participants included 265 adult women between the ages of 18 and 25 who provided retrospective self-reports of depressive symptoms, habitual sleep quality, and premenstrual symptoms for the past month. Trait-based difficulties in regulating emotions were also assessed. Results: Greater depressive symptoms significantly predicted greater premenstrual symptoms and both poor sleep and ineffective emotion regulation were shown to mediate this relationship. Conclusions: Poor sleep may enhance experience of premenstrual symptoms via its well-established impact on physical, cognitive, and/or affective functioning. Similarly, an inability to effectively regulate emotional responses in general may exacerbate experience or perception of somatic and mood symptoms during the premenstrual period, contributing to mood disturbances and risk. Findings require replication in future studies using prospective designs and more diverse samples of women. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Spatial narrative context modulates semantic (but not visual) competition during discourse processing
    Spatial narrative context modulates semantic (but not visual) competition during discourse processing Williams, Glenn P.; Kukona, Anuenue; Kamide, Yuki Recent research highlights the influence of (e.g., task) context on conceptual retrieval. To assess whether conceptual representations are context-dependent rather than static, we investigated the influence of spatial narrative context on accessibility for lexical-semantic information by exploring competition effects. In two visual world experiments, participants listened to narratives describing semantically related (piano-trumpet; Experiment 1) or visually similar (bat-cigarette; Experiment 2) objects in the same or separate narrative locations while viewing arrays displaying these (‘target’ and ‘competitor’) objects and other distractors. Upon re-mention of the target, we analysed eye movements to the competitor. In Experiment 1, we observed semantic competition only when targets and competitors were described in the same location; in Experiment 2, we observed visual competition regardless of context. We interpret these results as consistent with context-dependent approaches, such that spatial narrative context dampens accessibility for semantic but not visual information in the visual world.
  • Patient perceptions of living with severe asthma: Challenges to effective management
    Patient perceptions of living with severe asthma: Challenges to effective management Apps, Lindsay D; Chantrell, Stacey; Majd, Sally; Eglinton, Elizabeth; Singh, Sally J; Murphy, Anna C; Bradding, Peter; Green, Ruth H; Hudson, Nicky; Evans, Rachael A Background: The management of severe asthma poses many challenges related to treatment, adherence and psychosocial morbidity. There is little direct data from the patient perspective to understand and negotiate the complexities of managing severe asthma Objective: To explore the patient perceptions of living with severe asthma and the experience of managing severe asthma, in order to better understand the support that might promote more effective self-management for severe asthma. Methods: Participants were recruited from a specialist Difficult Asthma Service. Semi-structured interviews were conducted by researchers independent of the patient’s care. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and inductive Thematic Analysis was performed. Results: Twenty-nine participants [13 male, mean (SD) age 49.5 (13.6) years, mean Asthma Control Questionnaire 2.2 (1.2)] participated in an interview. Analysis resulted in four major themes describing the experience and challenges to managing severe asthma: Understanding of severe asthma, emotional impact of living with severe asthma (sub-theme: fear of hospitalisation), public perceptions of asthma, and concerns about medications. Conclusion: Healthcare professionals need to consider and discuss with patients their perceptions of severe asthma and the relevant treatments; particular attention should focus around education of disease control and actively exploring thoughts around hospitalisation. Our data highlights the potential for psychological and social support to enhance self-management by directly addressing the wide-ranging individual challenges patients face. There is also a need for greater public awareness and education about severe asthma to minimise patient distress particularly in the work environment. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.