Institute for Psychological Science publications

Click here for a full list of publications by the Institute for Psychological Science.

  • Papaloukas, P., Quincey, K. & Williamson, I. (2017). Venturing into the visual voice: combining photos and interviews in phenomenological inquiry around marginalisation and chronic illness Qualitative Research in Psychology DOI:10.1080/14780887.2017.1329364

  • Coulthard, H. & Thakker, D. (2015). Enjoyment of tactile play is associated with lower food neophobia in preschool children. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition & Dietetics, 115(7), 1134-1140.

  • Elqayam, S., Thompson, V.A., Wilkinson, M.R, Evans, J.St.B.T., & Over, D.E. (2015). Deontic Introduction: A Theory of Inference from Is to Ought. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 41(5), 1516-1532.

  • O’Reilly, M. Bowlay-Williams, J., Svirydzenka, N. & Vostanis, P. (2016). A qualitative exploration of how adopted children and their parents conceptualise mental health difficulties. Adoption and Fostering, 40(1), 60-76.

  • Hadlington, L.J. and Scase, M.O. (2018) End-user frustrations and failures in digital technology: exploring the role of Fear of Missing Out, Internet addiction and personality. Heliyon, 4, e00872.

  • Scase, M.,Marandure, B., Hancox, J., Kreiner, K., Hanke, S. and Kropf, J. (2017) Development of and adherence to a computer-based gamified environment designed to promote health and wellbeing in older people with mild cognitive impairment. In: Health Informatics Meets eHealth (edited by D. Hayn and G. Schreier). Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 236, pp. 348-355

  • Fearing Compassion Impacts Psychological Well-being but has no Effect on Physiological Indicators.
    Fearing Compassion Impacts Psychological Well-being but has no Effect on Physiological Indicators. Gill, Jasmin; Scase, M. O. Fearing Compassion Impacts Psychological Well-being but has no Effect on Physiological Indicators. Objective: Fears of compassion are feelings of threat towards receiving and giving kindness. This study examined the fears towards compassion on physiological responses during compassionate exercises. It has been argued that such fears are a barrier to a relaxation system normally reducing physiological activity but there has been no empirical evidence to support this. Exercises have been developed to increase compassion by activating a physiological soothing system, however if fears to compassion block the effectiveness of compassion then new methods may need to be developed to increase self-compassion. Participants and Methods: A non-clinical sample of sixty participants took part in two compassionate exercises. Heart rate and skin conductance were recorded during these exercises to indicate physiological activity. Social safeness, self-criticism and symptoms of depression were also assessed via the Fears of Compassion Scale, the Forms of Self-Criticism/Self-Reassuring Scale, the Social Safeness Scale and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS). Results: Multivariate analysis indicated there was no effect between high and low fears of compassion on both heart rate and skin conductance. However, social safeness and symptoms of mental illness were significantly affected by fears of compassion from psychological indicators of well-being, (F(3,56)= 5.721, p<.01, Wilks Lambda = .765, partial n2=.235). Independent analysis found differences in social safeness (F(1,58)= 14.46, p<.01, partial n2=.20) and DASS (F(1,58)= 6.53, p<.05, partial n2= .101). Social safeness was higher in the low fears of compassion group, 46.87 (SD= 6.06), whilst DASS was greater in the high fears group, 23.34 (SD=12.91). Conclusions: The findings did not support that fears are a barrier towards building compassion suggesting that compassionate exercises can be effective for both higher and lower fears of compassion. These results support a dynamic relationship between social safeness and fears towards compassion. The implications are that fears do not prevent activation of the self-soothing system but have an effect on social safeness and abnormal behaviour development.
  • Disturbance at the Dinner Table: Exploring mothers’ experiences of mealtimes when caring for their son or daughter with anorexia nervosa
    Disturbance at the Dinner Table: Exploring mothers’ experiences of mealtimes when caring for their son or daughter with anorexia nervosa White, Hannah; Haycraft, Emma; Meyer, Caroline; Williamson, I. R. This study examined mothers’ (n=9) mealtime experiences when caring for their son or daughter with anorexia nervosa (AN) through semi-structured interviews. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis identified three themes: 1) Managing mealtime combat through accommodation and acceptance; 2) Feeling isolated, inauthentic and ill-equipped; 3) A need for understanding and to be understood. The overarching concepts of ‘combat’ and ‘distortion’ also underpin the analysis, uniquely outlining how mothers come to understand this daily situation. Mealtime-related interventions need to be developed which prioritise promoting skills and confidence in managing mealtimes and helping carers to address the emotional challenges of these occasions. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version.
  • Behind the rainbow, "Tongqi" wives of men who have sex with men in China: a systematic review
    Behind the rainbow, "Tongqi" wives of men who have sex with men in China: a systematic review Wang, Yuan Yuan; Wilson, Amanda D.; Chen, Runsen; Hu, Zhishan; Peng, Ke; Xu, Shicun Background: Due to the restrictions and stigmatization of homosexuality in China, there has emerged the “Tongqi,” or the wives of men who have sex with men (MSM). There are around 14 million Tongqi wives whose needs for support are often overshadowed. This phenomenon has been largely under researched, this review is the first to address the current data on the Tongqi. The aim of this systematic review is to begin to provide insight into the pre-existing data and the further support that is needed for the wives of MSM. Methods: The researchers searched PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CNKI, Sinomed and WangFang databases from their inception date until June 7, 2019. Handsearching was also completed to provide a rich data set. Results: The articles were summarized and analyzed for thematic clusters. From the selected article, five themes emerged, including Sexual Health Issues, Intimate Partner Violence, Mental Health Status, Marriage Dissatisfaction, and Coping Strategies. These themes often intersected to provide a complex understanding of the current gaps in support provided to Tongqi. Conclusion: Tongqi wives remain a hidden population in Chinese mainstream society, who deserves a sensitive approach to support. The study revealed that the MSM wives suffer severe mental, physical, health, and life related harms. However, instead of situating them into the victim roles, many women take on an identity of empowerment and are working together, aiming to make social changes. In order to address the Tongqi phenomenon, it is also essential to reduce the discrimination toward homosexuality. Tongqi are a special group of Chinese women, they require further intensive research attention. open access article
  • Large as being on top of the world and small as hitting the roof: A shared magnitude representation for the comparison of emotions and numbers
    Large as being on top of the world and small as hitting the roof: A shared magnitude representation for the comparison of emotions and numbers Baldassi, Giulio; Murgia, Mauro; Prpic, Valter; Rigutti, Sara; Domijan, Drazen; Agostini, Tiziano; Fantoni, Carlo Previous work on the direct Speed–Intensity Association (SIA) on comparative judgment tasks involved spatially distributed responses over spatially distributed stimuli with high motivational significance like facial expressions of emotions. This raises the possibility that the inferred stimulus-driven regulation of lateralized motor reactivity described by SIA, which was against the one expected on the basis of a valence-specific lateral bias, was entirely due to attentional capture from motivational significance (beyond numerical cognition). In order to establish the relevance of numerical cognition on the regulation of attentional capture we ran two complementary experiments. These involved the same direct comparison task on stimulus pairs that were fully comparable in terms of their analog representation of intensity but with different representational domain and motivational significance: symbolic magnitudes with low motivational significance in experiment 1 vs. emotions with rather high motivational significance in experiment 2. The results reveal a general SIA and point to a general mechanism regulating comparative judgments. This is based on the way spatial attention is captured toward locations that contain the stimulus which is closest in term of relative intensity to the extremal values of the series, regardless from its representational domain being it symbolic or emotional The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Where are our ancestors? Rethinking Trobriand cosmology
    Where are our ancestors? Rethinking Trobriand cosmology Jarillo, Sergio; Darrah, Allan; Crivelli, Carlos; Mkwesipu, Camillus; Kalubaku, Kenneth; Toyagena, Nagia; Okwala, Gumwemwata; Gumwemwata, Justin Reincarnation has been a fundamental tenet of anthropologists’ representations of Trobriand cosmology since Bronislaw Malinowski published “Baloma; The spirits of the dead in the Trobriand Islands” in 1916. Yet, during recent ethnographic fieldwork, many Trobrianders repeatedly denied the possibility of rebirth. Faced with a potential major shift in this fundamental belief, we used a mix of quantitative and qualitative research methods to assess current Trobriand cosmological views. Drawing on a combination of structured and semi-structured interviews and focus groups, we tested the current validity of prior cosmological representations as found in the literature. In this article, we first analyze the results of the questionnaires. Second, we examine some of the implications that current beliefs have for Trobriand kinship and cosmology. And third, in light of the observed near universal negation of reincarnation, we discuss whether Trobrianders’ reported assumptions about the afterlife changed drastically in the last century or if Malinowski misrepresented them from the outset. open access journal
  • Activating semantic knowledge during spoken words and environmental sounds: Evidence from the visual world paradigm
    Activating semantic knowledge during spoken words and environmental sounds: Evidence from the visual world paradigm Toon, Josef; Kukona, Anuenue Two visual world experiments investigated the activation of semantically related concepts during the processing of environmental sounds and spoken words. Participants heard environmental sounds such as barking or spoken words such as “puppy” while viewing visual arrays with objects such as a bone (semantically related competitor) and candle (unrelated distractor). In Experiment 1, a puppy (target) was also included in the visual array; in Experiment 2, it was not. During both types of auditory stimuli, competitors were fixated significantly more than distractors, supporting the co-activation of semantically related concepts in both cases; comparisons of the two types of auditory stimuli also revealed significantly greater effects with environmental sounds than spoken words. We discuss implications of these results for theories of semantic knowledge. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Effectiveness of Lifestyle Health Promotion Interventions for Nurses: A Systematic Review
    Effectiveness of Lifestyle Health Promotion Interventions for Nurses: A Systematic Review Stanulewicz, Natalia; Knox, Emily; Narayanasamy, Melanie; Shivji, Noureen; Khunti, Kamlesh; Blake, Holly Background: Prior research has investigated various strategies to improve health, wellbeing and the job-related outcomes of nurses. However, the scope of this evidence is not clear and the types of intervention most likely to have positive outcomes are unknown. Objective: To provide an overview and synthesis of the effectiveness of interventions conducted with the goal of improving health, wellbeing and the job-related outcomes of nurses. Methods: A systematic database search was conducted from January 2000 to December 2018, with pre-defined criteria (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; MEDLINE and PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; PsycINFO; and BioMed Central). In total, 136 intervention studies with a total sample of 16,129 participants (range 9–3381) were included and evaluated. Data extraction, quality assessment and risk of bias analyses were performed. Results: Studies included randomised controlled trials (RCTs; n = 52, 38%), randomised crossover design studies (n = 2, 1.5%) and non-randomised pre-post studies with a control group (n = 31, 23%) and without a control group (n = 51, 37.5%). The majority of interventions focused on education, physical activity, mindfulness, or relaxation. Thirty-seven (27%) studies had a multimodal intervention approach. On average, studies had relatively small samples (median = 61; mode = 30) and were conducted predominantly in North America (USA/Canada, n = 53). The findings were mixed overall, with some studies reporting benefits and others finding no effects. Dietary habits was the most successfully improved outcome (8/9), followed by indices of body composition (20/24), physical activity (PA) (11/14), and stress (49/66), with >70% of relevant studies in each of these categories reporting improvements. The lowest success rate was for work-related outcomes (16/32). Separate analysis of RCTs indicated that interventions that focus solely on education might be less likely to result in positive outcomes than interventions targeting behavioural change. Conclusions: Interventions targeting diet, body composition, PA, or stress are most likely to have positive outcomes for nurses’ health and/or wellbeing. The methodologically strongest evidence (RCTs) is available for body composition and stress. Interventions relying solely on educational approaches are least likely to be effective. Organisational outcomes appear to be more challenging to change with lifestyle intervention, likely requiring more complex solutions including changes to the work environment. There is a need for more high-quality evidence since many studies had moderate or high risk of bias and low reporting quality. open access article
  • Teaching using contextualised and decontextualised representations: examining the case of differential calculus through a comparative judgement technique
    Teaching using contextualised and decontextualised representations: examining the case of differential calculus through a comparative judgement technique Gilmore, Camilla; Inglis, Matthew; Jones, Ian; Bisson, M. J. An ongoing debate concerns whether novel mathematical concepts are better learned using contextualised or decontextualised representations. A barrier to resolving this debate, and therefore to progress in the discipline, has been the paucity of validated methods of measuring students’ understanding of mathematical concepts. We developed an innovative and efficient method for measuring, in experimental settings, students’ understanding of any mathematical concept using comparative judgement. We demonstrate the method by applying it to the comparison of learning outcomes from two teaching conditions. Participants (260 15–16 year olds across six schools) were introduced to differential calculus using contextualised or decontextualised representations. We then assessed participants’ comparative conceptual understanding of derivatives. We found evidence that contextualised and decontextualised representations were equally effective at promoting student learning in this context. The assessment method yielded valid and reliable results, suggesting that it offers a robust and efficient approach for the problem of assessing conceptual understanding in experimental or other comparative settings. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Mental health outcomes among Chinese prenatal and postpartum women after the implementation of universal two-child policy
    Mental health outcomes among Chinese prenatal and postpartum women after the implementation of universal two-child policy Lu, Li; Duan, Zhizhou; Wang, Yuan Yuan; Wilson, Amanda D.; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Longjun; Guo, Yan; Yonglang, Lv; Yang, Xiaonan; Yu, Renjie; Wang, Shuilan; Wu, Zhengyan; Jiang, Ping; Xia, Mengqing; Wang, Guosheng; Wang, Xuixia; Tao, Ye; Li, Xiaohong; Ma, Ling; Huang, Liming; Dong, Qin; Shen, Hong; Sun, Jue; Li, Shun; Deng, Wei; Chen, Runsen Background Poor health status among both pregnant and postpartum women is commonly reported worldwide. The associations between mental health outcomes and giving birth to the second child since the implementation of China's universal two-child policy have not been identified. Methods A large-scale based mental health survey was conducted between March 2017 and December 2018 in Suzhou, China. The survey evaluated the symptoms of anxiety, hypomania, depression and poor sleep quality among both pregnant and postpartum women. Results A total of 3,113 questionnaires were collected, the prevalence of anxiety, hypomanic and depressive symptoms and poor sleep quality in our sample were 3.2% (95%CI: 2.6%-3.9%), 51.7% (95%CI: 49.9%-53.4%), 12.4% (95%CI: 11.3%-13.6%) and 37.8% (95%CI: 36.0%-39.5%), respectively. Logistic regression showed that giving birth to the second child was positively associated with women's age, and was negatively correlated with higher educational level and living in rented housing. Women with the second pregnancy or child were positively associated with anxiety symptoms in the whole sample (OR=1.75, 95%CI: 1.11-2.75) and among prenatal women (OR=2.11, 95%CI: 1.16-3.83), while it was inversely correlated with depressive symptoms among postpartum women (OR=0.63, 95%CI: 0.41-0.99). Conclusions Women giving birth a second time were more prone to have anxiety symptoms among the prenatal women and the whole sample, and less likely to have depressive symptoms among the postpartum women. Efficacious measures and interventions are essential to improve maternal mental health. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Exposure to the IPCC special report on 1.5°C global warming is linked to perceived threat and increased concern about climate change
    Exposure to the IPCC special report on 1.5°C global warming is linked to perceived threat and increased concern about climate change Ogunbode, Charles Adedayo; Doran, Rouven; Bohm, Gisela This article investigates the influence of exposure to the IPCC special report on 1.5°C global warming on climate change attitudes. Among a nationally representative sample of the Norwegian public, we found that exposure to the report is associated with greater perceived threat from climate change and increased climate change concern. However, this association was modestly moderated by political orientation. Exposure to the report had a weaker association with perceived threat and climate change concern among politically right-leaning individuals, compared with their left-leaning counterparts, and there was no association between exposure to the report and climate change concern among individuals who self-identified as being on the far-right end of the political spectrum. We conclude that, despite the commonly observed tendency for biased assimilation of climate change information and polarisation of opinion among the public, scientific communication regarding climate risks may still have a viable role to play in promoting climate change engagement and action. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • An fMRI Study of Response and Semantic Conflict in the Stroop Task
    An fMRI Study of Response and Semantic Conflict in the Stroop Task Parris, Benjamin; Wadsley, Michael; Hasshim, Nabil; Benattayallah, Abdelmalek; Augustinova, Maria; Ferrand, Ludovic An enduring question in selective attention research is whether we can successfully ignore an irrelevant stimulus and at what point in the stream of processing we are able to select the appropriate source of information. Using methods informed by recent research on the varieties of conflict in the Stroop task the present study provides evidence for specialized functions of regions of the frontoparietal network in processing response and semantic conflict during Stroop task performance. Specifically, we used trial types and orthogonal contrasts thought to better independently measure response and semantic conflict and we presented the trial types in pure blocks to maximize response conflict and therefore better distinguish between the conflict types. Our data indicate that the left inferior PFC plays an important role in the processing of both response and semantic (or stimulus) conflict, whilst regions of the left parietal cortex (BA40) play an accompanying role in response, but not semantic, conflict processing. Moreover, our study reports a role for the right mediodorsal thalamus in processing semantic, but not response, conflict. In none of our comparisons did we observe activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a finding we ascribe to the use of blocked trial type presentation and one that has implications for theories of ACC function. open access article
  • Wanting to Be Happy but Not Knowing How: Poor Attentional Control and Emotion-Regulation Abilities Mediate the Association Between Valuing Happiness and Depression
    Wanting to Be Happy but Not Knowing How: Poor Attentional Control and Emotion-Regulation Abilities Mediate the Association Between Valuing Happiness and Depression Kahriz, Bahram; Glover, Francesca; Vogt, Julia; Bower, Joanne L. Recent studies suggest that valuing happiness is associated with negative psychological health outcomes, including increased depression, in US samples. We aimed to replicate these associations in two studies at a UK university (Nstudy one = 151, and Nstudy two = 299). Importantly, we also investigated the role of emotional attentional control and habitual emotion regulation in the relationship between valuing happiness and depression. In both studies, we found that valuing happiness was related to increased depression, confirming the link between valuing happiness and depression in a Western country outside of the USA. Moreover, our findings indicated that the relationship between valuing happiness and depression was strongest in British, rather than non-British participants or participants of dual nationality. Further, our findings revealed that valuing happiness and depression were indirectly associated via the ability to control attention in emotional situations, perceived ability to savor positive experiences, and the extent to which positive emotions feel intrusive. Specifically, increased valuing happiness was associated with lower emotion attention control and lower savoring of positive experiences, which in turn was related to depressive symptoms. These results show that the impaired ability to respond adaptively to emotional situations and to enjoy positive events may underlie the paradoxical relationship between valuing happiness and low well-being. open access article
  • Sleep deprivation impairs affordance perception behavior during an action boundary accuracy assessment
    Sleep deprivation impairs affordance perception behavior during an action boundary accuracy assessment Connaboy, Christopher; LaGoy, Alice; Johnson, Caleb; Sinnott, Aaron; Eagle, Shawn; Pepping, Gert-Jan; Simpson, Richard; Alfano, Candice; Bower, Joanne L. Objectives: Astronauts must adapt behaviors to changing affordances (action possibilities) when exposed to operational stressors such as sleep deprivation. The inability to correctly perceive affordances may cause astronauts to attempt behaviors that place them at greater risk. This study investigated the effects of sleep deprivation on affordance perception performance during 30-day NASA Human Exploration Research Analog missions. Methods: Sixteen participants completed a perception-action coupling task (PACT) over days 22-25 of the missions. Participants completed sessions on day 22 (1800) and 24 (1200 and 1730) under normal sleep conditions and sessions on day 25 (0430, 1200 and 1445) after a night of sleep deprivation. During PACT, participants judge whether virtual balls afford posting (can fit) through virtual apertures. The ratio of ball-to-aperture size ranges from 0.2-1.8 (afforded trials <1, unafforded trials >1). A two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze the effect of time and trial type (afforded versus unafforded) on response time (RST) and accuracy (ACC). Results: For RST, significant main effects of time (F2.666, 39.984 = 7.685, p = .001) and trial type (F1, 15 = 17.554, p = .001) were observed. Afforded RST was greater than unafforded RST. ACC decreased across time (F2.724, 20.939 = 5.137, p = 0.005) but did not differ between trial types. No significant interaction effects were observed. Conclusion: Decrements in affordance-based behaviors were observed under increasing levels of sleep deprivation and subjects responded slower to trials where the task-specific affordance was available. These decrements may relate to changes in operational performance. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Social media impacts the relation between interpersonal conflict and job performance
    Social media impacts the relation between interpersonal conflict and job performance Jiang, Feng; Lu, Su; Zhu, Xiji; Song, Xin Previous research has predominantly focused on the effects of cognitive and emotional reactions on the relation between interpersonal conflict and job performance. The effects of behavioral reactions, however, have been largely ignored. To fill this gap, this study aims to investigate how behavioral reactions indexed by Wechat use affects the above relation. Specifically, demand-control-support theory and demand-control-person theory form the basis for a stressor–strain model and a joint investigation of 1) Wechat use as mediating the link between interpersonal conflict with job performance and 2) relatedness need satisfaction and emotional social support as moderating the mediation. A moderated mediation model is tested with matched data collected thrice from 300 subordinates and their supervisors. Results highlight the importance of behavioral mechanisms and state-like individual differences when examining the relationships between interpersonal conflict and job performance. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • The effectiveness of a social media intervention for reducing portion sizes in young adults and adolescents
    The effectiveness of a social media intervention for reducing portion sizes in young adults and adolescents Blundell-Birtill, Pam; Sharps, Maxine; Hetherington, M. M.; Rolls, Barbara J.; Evans, Charlotte E.L. Abstract Objective: Adolescents and young adults select larger portions of energy-dense food than recommended. The majority of young people have a social media profile, and peer influence on social media may moderate the size of portions selected. Methods: Two pilot-interventions examined whether exposure to images of peers’ portions of high-energy-dense (HED) snacks and sugar-sweetened-beverages (SSBs) on social media (Instagram) would influence reported desired portions selected on a survey. Confederate peers posted ‘their’ portions of HED snacks and SSBs on Instagram. At baseline and intervention end participants completed surveys that assessed desired portion sizes. Results: In intervention 1, Undergraduate students (N=20, Mean age=19.0y, SD=0.65y) participated in a two-week intervention in a within-subjects design. Participants reported smaller desired portions of HED snacks and SSBs following the intervention, and smaller desired portions of HED snacks for their peers. In intervention 2, adolescents (N=44, Mean age=14.4y, SD=1.06y) participated in a four-week intervention (n=23) or control condition (n=21) in a between-subjects design. Intervention 2 did not influence adolescents to reduce their desired reported portion sizes of HED snacks or SSBs relative to control. Conclusions: These preliminary studies demonstrated that social media is a feasible way to communicate with young people. However, while the intervention influenced young adults’ reported desired portions and social norms regarding their peers’ portions, no significant impact on desired reported portion sizes was found for HED snacks and SSBs in adolescents. Desired portion sizes of some foods and beverages may be resistant to change via a social media intervention in this age group. open access journal
  • When robots tell you what to do: Sense of agency in human- and robot-guided actions
    When robots tell you what to do: Sense of agency in human- and robot-guided actions Barlas, Zeynep The present study investigated the sense of agency (SoA) when actions were determined by another human vs. a humanoid robot as compared to when freely selected. Additionally, perceived robot-autonomy was manipulated via autonomous vs. non-autonomous descriptions of the robot. SoA was assessed by judgment of control ratings and intentional binding (i.e., perceived temporal attraction between voluntary actions and their outcomes). Participants performed free and instructed key presses that produced an auditory tone (Experiment-1) and visual stimuli conveying neutral, positive, or negative valence (Experiment-2). Binding and control ratings were greater in free compared to instructed actions, and comparable between human- and robot-instructed actions. Control ratings were higher for positive compared to neutral and negative outcomes, and positively correlated with ratings of how human-like the robot appeared. These results highlight the role of endogenous processing of action selection and provide preliminary insight into the SoA when actions are guided by artificial agents. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Using pictorial nudges of fruit and vegetables on tableware to increase children’s fruit and vegetable consumption
    Using pictorial nudges of fruit and vegetables on tableware to increase children’s fruit and vegetable consumption Sharps, Maxine; Thomas, Eleanor; Blissett, Jacqueline Children’s fruit and vegetable consumption is lower than recommended. Increasing consumption is important for children’s health. Nudges influence children’s eating behaviour, but less is known about the influence of a pictorial nudge on tableware on children’s fruit and vegetable consumption. Two studies examined this. Study 1 examined whether a pictorial fruit nudge (a grape image) on a plate influenced children’s fruit (grape) consumption relative to a control condition (no image). In a between-subjects design, children (n=63, Mean age=8.9 years, SD=1.41, 38 females, 25 males, 73% had a healthy-weight) were randomly assigned to one of two conditions (fruit nudge vs. control). Study 2 examined the influence of a large portion pictorial nudge (a large portion carrot image) vs. a small portion pictorial nudge (a small portion carrot image) vs. control (no nudge) on children’s vegetable (carrot) consumption. In a between-subjects design, children (n=59, Mean age=8.57 years, SD=2.13, 31 females, 28 males, 85% had a healthy-weight) were randomly assigned to a condition. In Study 1 children consumed significantly more fruit in the pictorial nudge condition than the control condition. In Study 2 children ate significantly more vegetables in the large portion pictorial nudge condition than the other two conditions. The small portion pictorial nudge did not affect children’s vegetable consumption relative to control. The results indicate that pictorial nudges on tableware influence children’s fruit and vegetable consumption, and the portion size of this type of nudge may be key to whether it influences children’s eating behaviour. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Breast cancer and hair loss: Experiential similarities and differences in men and women's narratives
    Breast cancer and hair loss: Experiential similarities and differences in men and women's narratives Trusson, D; Quincey, Kerry Background: There are relatively few studies comparing men and women’s breast cancer experiences. Furthermore, men’s experiences of cancer treatment-induced alopecia have received scant academic attention compared to those of women. Objective: To explore experiences of treatment-induced alopecia in both sexes and highlight ways in which they might be supported when undergoing breast cancer treatment. Methods: Qualitative interviews and photographic data taken from two separate experiential inquiries were analysed together, focussing on references made to treatment-induced alopecia in women’s and men’s breast cancer accounts. Results: Hair loss was described as distressing by both sexes, affecting gendered identities and relationships. Men typically discussed losing body hair, whereas women rarely referred to body hair explicitly, underlining gendered aspects of their experiences. Differences were noted in coping strategies, with men using humour and asserting their masculinity. Women were better able to disguise hair loss, while men were forced to reveal their hairlessness. Conclusions: The findings contribute a nuanced understanding of the experience of treatment-induced alopecia for both men and women, which will help to improve their care during cancer treatment. Implications for Practice: Healthcare professionals should provide information about the possible implications of cancer-related alopecia for identities and social relationships for both sexes. Highlighting marked gender differences in cancer-related hair loss, advice and support specific to men’s needs would be particularly beneficial, enabling greater gender equality in clinical practice. Understanding the coping strategies employed by both sexes in relation to hair loss will help healthcare professionals to identify and address any underlying patient distress. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version
  • Effects of social and outcome expectancies on hazardous drinking among Chinese university students: The mediating role of drinking motivations
    Effects of social and outcome expectancies on hazardous drinking among Chinese university students: The mediating role of drinking motivations Zhang, Meng Xuan; Ku, Lisbeth; Wu, Anise M. S.; Yu, Shu M.; Pesigan, Ivan J. A. Background and Objectives: Based on the theory of reasoned action, the present study investigated the relative effects of drinking outcome expectancies and parental norms, as well as the mediating effect of drinking motivations, on hazardous drinking in Chinese university students. Method: A sample of Chinese university students in Hong Kong and Macao (N = 973, M=19.82, SD=1.57, 48.9% males), who reported drinking in the past 3 months, voluntarily completed an anonymous questionnaire. Path analysis was used to test the effects of the variables on hazardous drinking. Results: All the psychosocial variables showed positive correlations with hazardous drinking. In the path model, controlling for sex, parental norms had both direct and indirect effects on hazardous drinking through social and enhancement motivations. Courage had the strongest indirect effect on drinking behavior through social, enhancement, and coping motivations, whereas the relationship between tension reduction and hazardous drinking was mediated by enhancement and coping motivations. Sociality and sexuality only had indirect effect through social and coping motivations respectively. Negative outcome expectancies had no direct nor indirect effects on hazardous drinking. Conclusions: Perceived approval from parents and positive alcohol outcome expectancies may enhance individuals’ tendency to engage in hazardous drinking by increasing their motivation to drink to be social, for enjoyment, and to cope with problems. Parents should explicitly show their disapproval of their children’s drinking, and education efforts should focus on decreasing positive outcome expectancies and associated motivations for drinking among Chinese university students. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • A serious game to explore human foraging in a 3D environment
    A serious game to explore human foraging in a 3D environment Prpic, Valter; Kniestedt, Isabelle; Camilleri, Elizabeth; Maureira, Marcello Gomez; Kristjansson, Arni; Thornton, Ian M. Traditional search tasks have taught us much about vision and attention. Recently, several groups have begun to use multiple-target search to explore more complex and temporally extended “foraging” behaviour. Many of these new foraging tasks, however, maintain the simplified 2D displays and response demands associated with traditional, single-target visual search. In this respect, they may fail to capture important aspects of real-world search or foraging behaviour. In the current paper, we present a serious game for mobile platforms in which human participants play the role of an animal foraging for food in a simulated 3D environment. Game settings can be adjusted, so that, for example, custom target and distractor items can be uploaded, and task parameters, such as the number of target categories or target/distractor ratio are all easy to modify. We demonstrate how the app can be used to address specific research questions by conducting two human foraging experiments. Our results indicate that in this 3D environment, a standard feature/conjunction manipulation does not lead to a reduction in foraging runs, as it is known to do in simple, 2D foraging tasks. Differences in foraging behaviour are discussed in terms of environment structure, task demands and attentional constraints. open access journal
  • Investigating the mediating effect of working memory on intentional forgetting in dysphoria
    Investigating the mediating effect of working memory on intentional forgetting in dysphoria Noreen, Saima; Cooke, Richard; Ridout, Nathan Our aim was to determine if deficits in intentional forgetting that are associated with depression and dysphoria (subclinical depression) could be explained, at least in part, by variations in working memory function. Sixty dysphoric and 61 non-dysphoric participants completed a modified version of the think/no-think (TNT) task and a measure of complex working memory (the operation span task). The TNT task involved participants learning a series of emotional cue–target word pairs, before being presented with a subset of the cues and asked to either recall the associated target (think) or to prevent it from coming to mind (no think) by thinking about a substitute target word. Participants were subsequently asked to recall the targets to all cues (regardless of previous recall instructions). As expected, after controlling for anxiety, we found that dysphoric individuals exhibited impaired forgetting relative to the non-dysphoric participants. Also as expected, we found that superior working memory function was associated with more successful forgetting. Critically, in the dysphoric group, we found that working memory mediated the effect of depression on intentional forgetting. That is, depression influenced forgetting indirectly via its effect on working memory. However, under conditions of repeated suppression, there was also a direct effect of depression on forgetting. These findings represent an important development in the understanding of impaired forgetting in depression and also suggest that working memory training might be a viable intervention for improving the ability of depressed individuals to prevent unwanted memories from coming to mind. open access article
  • Development of and adherence to a gamified environment promoting health and wellbeing in older people with mild cognitive impairment
    Development of and adherence to a gamified environment promoting health and wellbeing in older people with mild cognitive impairment Scase, M. O.; Marandure, B. N. Overview and aims: This project aimed to promote active aging by delivering tasks via a tablet computer to participants aged 65-80 with mild cognitive impairment. The aims were to develop an age-appropriate gamified environment and to assess application adherence through an intervention. Methods: The gamified environment was developed through a series of three iterative user-centered focus groups. Adherence was assessed by the time spent engaging with applications over 47 days supplemented with participant interviews. There were two groups of participants: one of 11 people living in a retirement village (1 male; mean age=75.4, SD=5.14; mean MoCA=26.0, SD=2.28) and the other of 13 people living separately across a city (1 male; mean age=74.9, SD=3.68; mean MoCA=24.4, SD=1.19). Results: There was a significant difference in the mean number of sessions for retirement village participants (mean=29.1, SD=14.8) and those living separately (mean=8.8, SD=7.5), adjusted t(14.3)=4.1, p=0.001 with retirement village participants engaging in three times the number of game sessions compared to the other group possibly because of different between group social arrangements. Interview thematic analysis at follow-up revealed that participants enjoyed the social aspects of the project, liked computer games and engaging in them made them feel better. Discussion and Conclusions: An age-appropriate user-designed gamified environment can help older people with mild cognitive impairment engage in computer-based applications and can impact them positively. However, social and community factors influence adherence in a longer-term intervention.
  • Conditionals and Inferential Connections: Toward a New Semantics
    Conditionals and Inferential Connections: Toward a New Semantics Douven, Igor; Elqayam, Shira; Singmann, Henrik; van Wijnbergen-Huitink, Janneke In previous published research (“Conditionals and Inferential Connections: A Hypothetical Inferential Theory,” Cognitive Psychology, 2018), we investigated experimentally what role the presence and strength of an inferential connection between a conditional’s antecedent and consequent plays in how people process that conditional. Our analysis showed the strength of that connection to be strongly predictive of whether participants evaluated the conditional as true, false, or neither true nor false. In this paper, we re-analyze the data from our previous research, now focusing on the semantics of conditionals rather than on how they are processed. Specifically, we use those data to compare the main extant semantics with each other and with inferentialism, a semantics according to which the truth of a conditional requires the presence of an inferential connection between the conditional’s component parts. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Poor Sleep and Emotion Dysregulation Mediate the Association between Depressive and Premenstrual Symptoms in Young Adult Women
    Poor Sleep and Emotion Dysregulation Mediate the Association between Depressive and Premenstrual Symptoms in Young Adult Women Meers, J. M.; Bower, Joanne L.; Alfano, Candice A. Purpose: A large portion of reproductive-aged women report experiencing distressing premenstrual symptoms. These symptoms can be exacerbated by concurrent mood problems and contribute to long-term depressive risk. However, difficulty sleeping and regulating emotional responses are also associated with the premenstrual phase and represent additional, well-established risk factors for depression. The aim of this study was to investigate whether habitual sleep problems and emotion regulation strategies serve to mediate the relationship between mood and premenstrual symptoms in non-treatment seeking young women. Methods: Participants included 265 adult women between the ages of 18 and 25 who provided retrospective self-reports of depressive symptoms, habitual sleep quality, and premenstrual symptoms for the past month. Trait-based difficulties in regulating emotions were also assessed. Results: Greater depressive symptoms significantly predicted greater premenstrual symptoms and both poor sleep and ineffective emotion regulation were shown to mediate this relationship. Conclusions: Poor sleep may enhance experience of premenstrual symptoms via its well-established impact on physical, cognitive, and/or affective functioning. Similarly, an inability to effectively regulate emotional responses in general may exacerbate experience or perception of somatic and mood symptoms during the premenstrual period, contributing to mood disturbances and risk. Findings require replication in future studies using prospective designs and more diverse samples of women. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Using repeated visual exposure, rewards and modelling in a mobile application to increase vegetable acceptance in children
    Using repeated visual exposure, rewards and modelling in a mobile application to increase vegetable acceptance in children Farrow, C.; Belcher, E.; Coulthard, Helen; Thomas, J.M.; Lumsden, J.; Hakobyan, L.; Haycraft, E. Children are not consuming the recommended amounts of fruit and vegetables. Repeated visual exposure, modelling, and rewards have been shown to be effective at increasing vegetable acceptance in young children. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an evidence-based mobile application (Vegetable Maths Masters) which builds on these principles to increase children’s liking and acceptance of vegetables. Seventy-four children (37 male, 37 female) aged 3-6 years old were randomised to play with either the vegetable app or a similar control app that did not include any foods. Children played their allocated game for 10 minutes. Liking and acceptance of the vegetables used in Vegetable Maths Masters (carrot and sweetcorn) and other vegetables which were not used in the game (yellow pepper and tomato) were measured pre- and post-play in both groups. Parents provided data about their child’s food fussiness and previous exposure to the foods being used. Children who played with the Vegetable Maths Masters app consumed significantly more vegetables after playing with the app and reported significant increases in their liking of vegetables, relative to the control group. The effect of the Vegetable Maths Masters app on the change in consumption of vegetables was mediated by the change in liking of vegetables. These findings suggest that evidence-based mobile apps can provide an effective tool for increasing children’s liking and consumption of vegetables in the short-term. Further work is now required to establish whether these effects are maintained over time. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Spatial narrative context modulates semantic (but not visual) competition during discourse processing
    Spatial narrative context modulates semantic (but not visual) competition during discourse processing Williams, Glenn P.; Kukona, Anuenue; Kamide, Yuki Recent research highlights the influence of (e.g., task) context on conceptual retrieval. To assess whether conceptual representations are context-dependent rather than static, we investigated the influence of spatial narrative context on accessibility for lexical-semantic information by exploring competition effects. In two visual world experiments, participants listened to narratives describing semantically related (piano-trumpet; Experiment 1) or visually similar (bat-cigarette; Experiment 2) objects in the same or separate narrative locations while viewing arrays displaying these (‘target’ and ‘competitor’) objects and other distractors. Upon re-mention of the target, we analysed eye movements to the competitor. In Experiment 1, we observed semantic competition only when targets and competitors were described in the same location; in Experiment 2, we observed visual competition regardless of context. We interpret these results as consistent with context-dependent approaches, such that spatial narrative context dampens accessibility for semantic but not visual information in the visual world.
  • Patient perceptions of living with severe asthma: Challenges to effective management
    Patient perceptions of living with severe asthma: Challenges to effective management Apps, Lindsay D; Chantrell, Stacey; Majd, Sally; Eglinton, Elizabeth; Singh, Sally J; Murphy, Anna C; Bradding, Peter; Green, Ruth H; Hudson, Nicky; Evans, Rachael A Background: The management of severe asthma poses many challenges related to treatment, adherence and psychosocial morbidity. There is little direct data from the patient perspective to understand and negotiate the complexities of managing severe asthma Objective: To explore the patient perceptions of living with severe asthma and the experience of managing severe asthma, in order to better understand the support that might promote more effective self-management for severe asthma. Methods: Participants were recruited from a specialist Difficult Asthma Service. Semi-structured interviews were conducted by researchers independent of the patient’s care. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and inductive Thematic Analysis was performed. Results: Twenty-nine participants [13 male, mean (SD) age 49.5 (13.6) years, mean Asthma Control Questionnaire 2.2 (1.2)] participated in an interview. Analysis resulted in four major themes describing the experience and challenges to managing severe asthma: Understanding of severe asthma, emotional impact of living with severe asthma (sub-theme: fear of hospitalisation), public perceptions of asthma, and concerns about medications. Conclusion: Healthcare professionals need to consider and discuss with patients their perceptions of severe asthma and the relevant treatments; particular attention should focus around education of disease control and actively exploring thoughts around hospitalisation. Our data highlights the potential for psychological and social support to enhance self-management by directly addressing the wide-ranging individual challenges patients face. There is also a need for greater public awareness and education about severe asthma to minimise patient distress particularly in the work environment. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Measuring conceptual understanding in randomised controlled trials: Can comparative judgement help?
    Measuring conceptual understanding in randomised controlled trials: Can comparative judgement help? Jones, Ian; Bisson, M. J.; Gilmore, Camilla; Inglis, Matthew An impediment to conducting high-quality quantitative research studies in education is the paucity of valid measures of learning gains. Studies often seek to investigate students’ deep, conceptual understanding yet many measures assess only surface, procedural understanding. One reason is that the development of validated measures of conceptual understanding is resource intensive, time consuming, and success is not guaranteed. We evaluated a novel and efficient technique, based on comparative judgement, for assessing conceptual understanding. We applied the technique to a randomised controlled trial in which students were taught simple algebra based on either the Grid Algebra or the MiGen software package. The participants were Year 5 students (N = 188) drawn from four primary schools who had not encountered algebra previously. An instrument from the literature (Concepts in Secondary Mathematics and Science: Algebra Scale), and a novel comparative judgement assessment were administered following the intervention. Students in the Grid Algebra condition outperformed those in the MiGen condition on both post-test measures. The comparative judgement technique performed similarly to the standard instrument but was far more efficient to design and implement. The technique can, in principle, be quickly applied to any target concept of interest. We conclude that comparative judgement is a valid, reliable and practical tool that could help to increase both the quantity and quality of quantitative research in education. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Pre-Navigation via Interactive Audio Tactile Maps to Promote the Wellbeing of Visually Impaired People
    Pre-Navigation via Interactive Audio Tactile Maps to Promote the Wellbeing of Visually Impaired People Scase, M. O.; Griffin, Edward; Picinali, L. Background: Pre-navigational tools can assist visually impaired people when navigating unfamiliar environments. Assistive technology products (eg tactile maps or auditory simulations) can stimulate cognitive mapping processes to provide navigational assistance in these people. Objectives: We compared how well blind and visually impaired people could learn a map presented via a tablet computer auditory tactile map (ATM) in contrast to a conventional tactile map accompanied by a text description objectives. Methods: Performance was assessed with a multiple choice test that quizzed participants on orientation and spatial awareness. Semi-structured interviews explored participant experiences and preferences. Results: A statistically significant difference was found between the conditions with participants using the ATM performing much better than those who used a conventional tactile map and text description. Participants preferred the flexibility of learning of the ATM. Conclusion: This computer-based ATM provided an effective, easy to use and cost-effective way of enabling blind and partially sighted people learn a cognitive map and enhance their wellbeing. open access article
  • Individual differences in subphonemic sensitivity and phonological skills
    Individual differences in subphonemic sensitivity and phonological skills Li, Monica Y. C.; Braze, David; Kukona, Anuenue; Johns, Clinton L.; Tabor, Whitney; Van Dyke, Julie A.; Mencl, W. Einar; Shankweiler, Donald P.; Pugh, Kenneth R.; Magnuson, James S. Many studies have established a link between phonological abilities (indexed by phonological awareness and phonological memory tasks) and typical and atypical reading development. Individuals who perform poorly on phonological assessments have been mostly assumed to have underspecified (or “fuzzy”) phonological representations, with typical phonemic categories, but with greater category overlap due to imprecise encoding. An alternative posits that poor readers have overspecified phonological representations, with speech sounds perceived allophonically (phonetically distinct variants of a single phonemic category). On both accounts, mismatch between phonological categories and orthography leads to reading difficulty. Here, we consider the implications of these accounts for online speech processing. We used eye tracking and an individual differences approach to assess sensitivity to subphonemic detail in a community sample of young adults with a wide range of reading-related skills. Subphonemic sensitivity inversely correlated with meta-phonological task performance, consistent with overspecification. open access article
  • Eudaimonic Pathways of Activating Compassion Reduce Vulnerabilities to Paranoia
    Eudaimonic Pathways of Activating Compassion Reduce Vulnerabilities to Paranoia Scase, M. O.; Gill, J. K. This study aimed to identify if compassion benefits paranoia and, if so what type of compassion. Following a series of different compassionate exercises in 104 participants it was found that mindfulness approaches were the most significant in reducing paranoia suggesting a new approach for psychological problems characterised by paranoia.
  • Crossing boundaries: Global reorientation following transfer from the inside to the outside of an arena
    Crossing boundaries: Global reorientation following transfer from the inside to the outside of an arena Buckley, Matthew G.; Holden, L.J.; Spicer, S.G.; Smith, Alastair D.; Haselgrove, Mark In two spatial navigation experiments, human participants were asked to find a hidden goal (a Wi-Fi signal) that was located in one of the right-angled corners of a kite-shaped (Experiment 1) or a cross-shaped (Experiment 2) virtual environment. Goal location was defined solely with respect to the geometry of the environment. Following this training, in a test conducted in extinction, participants were placed onto the outside of the same environments and asked to locate the Wi-Fi signal. The results of both experiments revealed that participants spent more time searching in regions on the outside of the environments that were closest to where the Wi-Fi signal was located during training. These results are difficult to explain in terms of analyses of spatial navigation and re-orientation that emphasize the role of local representational encoding or view matching. Instead, we suggest that these results are better understood in terms of a global representation of the shape of the environment. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version.
  • Short versions of the 32-item Hypomania Checklist (HCL-32): a comprehensive systematic review
    Short versions of the 32-item Hypomania Checklist (HCL-32): a comprehensive systematic review Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Xu, Dan-Dan; Feng, Yuan; Chow, Ines H.I.; Ng, Chee H.; Ungvari, Gabor S.; Wang, Gang; Xiang, Yu-Tao Background: Bipolar disorder is frequently misdiagnosed, which leads to detrimental outcome. The 32-item Hypomania Checklist (HCL-32) is one of the most widely used self-reported screening instruments for hypomanic symptoms and short versions of the HCL-32 have been developed. This is a systematic review to examine the psychometric properties of HCL-32 short versions. Method: The PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases were systematically and independently searched by two reviewers. Studies that developed HCL short versions were included. Basic demographic and clinical characteristics, psychometric properties of the HCL short versions were recorded. Results: Eighteen studies were identified and the majority of the HCL short versions showed satisfactory to good psychometric properties. Conclusion: Short versions of the HCL may facilitate the early identification of bipolar disorder. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • The Influence of Culture on Attitudes Towards Humorous Advertising
    The Influence of Culture on Attitudes Towards Humorous Advertising Wang, Yi; Lu, Su; Liu, Jia; Tan, Jiahui; Zhang, Juyuan open access article
  • "Why don't you just block them?" Police Responses to Reports of Online Harassment and their Construction of the Ideal Victim
    "Why don't you just block them?" Police Responses to Reports of Online Harassment and their Construction of the Ideal Victim Black, Alex; Lumsden, Karen; Hadlington, Lee
  • ‘The real me shining through M.E.’: Visualizing Masculinity and Identity Threat in Men with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Using Photovoice and IPA.
    ‘The real me shining through M.E.’: Visualizing Masculinity and Identity Threat in Men with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Using Photovoice and IPA. Wilde, Lucina; Quincey, Kerry; Williamson, I. R. Phenomenological research in the context of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (M.E.) or Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) has predominantly explored women’s accounts. Due to the paucity of research highlighting men’s experiences of living with M.E./CFS, the aim of this research was to explore their visual and verbal accounts to gain a more in-depth understanding of how they make sense of their diagnosis and dual identity as a man with a stigmatized and often misunderstood chronic illness. Working within a critical health psychology framework the study utilised a phenomenological approach and an adapted version of Photovoice to gather and interrogate self-authored photographs and interview accounts from ten men living with M.E./CFS. An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of the integrated visual and verbal data led to the development of three themes: ‘Loss of Masculine Identity as Man with M.E./CFS’, ‘Marginalization attached to M.E./CFS and Masculinity’ and ‘Coping with Dual Identity by Adjustments, Assimilation and Acceptance’. The findings show how men with CFS cope with identity threat across personal, social, and cultural contexts, whilst making adaptations in their perceptions and performances of masculinity. We argue that participant-authored photographs could be used by researchers, activists and practitioners to facilitate increased understanding of and support for men with M.E./CFS. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Feel Safe to Take More Risks? Insecure Attachment Increases Consumer Risk-Taking Behavior
    Feel Safe to Take More Risks? Insecure Attachment Increases Consumer Risk-Taking Behavior Li, Yuan Yuan; Lu, Su; Lan, Junmei; Jiang, Feng open access article
  • British Couples’ Experiences of Men as Partners in Family Planning
    British Couples’ Experiences of Men as Partners in Family Planning Wilson, Amanda D. This study explores how British couples experience men partners’ roles within family planning. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted with couples and analyzed using discourse analysis. From the analysis, three discourses emerged: “Men’s role as partners is perceived differently within the couple”; “As partners men do not like their options for procuring condoms”; and “Family planning services are for women partners.” The first discourse considers the support of informal systems, whereas the second and third discourses reflect the formal support couples experienced when utilizing health services. Together, these three discourses construct a social structure where men partners’ roles are restricted within family planning. These findings are discussed in relation to changes to policy and practice, which aim to engage men as partners in family planning. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Emotional Semantic Congruency based on stimulus driven comparative judgements
    Emotional Semantic Congruency based on stimulus driven comparative judgements Fantoni, Carlo; Baldassi, Giulio; Rigutti, Sara; Prpic, Valter; Murgia, Mauro; Agostini, Tiziano A common cognitive process in everyday life consists in the comparative judgements of emotions given a pair of facial expressions and the choice of the most positive/negative among them. Results from three experiments on complete-facial expressions (happy/angry) and mixed-facial expressions (neutral/happy-or-angry) pairs viewed with (Experiment 1 and 3) or without (Experiment 2) foveation and performed in conditions in which valence was either task relevant (Experiment 1 and 2) or task irrelevant (Experiment 3), show that comparative judgements of emotions are stimulus driven. Judgements' speed increased as the target absolute emotion intensity grew larger together with the average emotion of the pair, irrespective of the compatibility between the valence and the side of motor response: a semantic congruency effect in the domain of emotion. This result undermines previous interpretation of results in the context of comparative judgements based on the lateralization of emotions (e.g., SNARC-like instructional flexibility), and is fully consistent with our formalization of emotional semantic congruency: The direct Speed-Intensity Association model. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version.
  • Healthcare for Older People Research in Leicestershire
    Healthcare for Older People Research in Leicestershire Conroy, Simon; Brown, Jayne; Bell, Katie; Haunton, Victoria; Robinson, T. G.; Bannerjee, J.; Martin, G.; Regen, E.; Phelps, K; O'Kelly, K.; Kondova, D.; Williamson, I.; Wildbur, D.; Fallmann, Sarah; Chen, L.; Oldridge, Louise; Larkin, M.; Wilson, A.; Agarwal, S.; Bankart, J.; Subramaniam, H.; Raghavan, Raghu; Panerai, R.; Clague-Baker, Nicola; Chung, E.; Stahl, B.; Chen, F.; Triboan, D.; Psychoula, I.; Northcott, Andy Academic geriatric medicine in Leicester . There has never been a better time to consider joining us. We have recently appointed a Professor in Geriatric Medicine, alongside Tom Robinson in stroke and Victoria Haunton, who has just joined as a Senior Lecturer in Geriatric Medicine. We have fantastic opportunities to support students in their academic pursuits through a well-established intercalated BSc programme, and routes on through such as ACF posts, and a successful track-record in delivering higher degrees leading to ACL post. We collaborate strongly with Health Sciences, including academic primary care. See below for more detail on our existing academic set-up. Leicester Academy for the Study of Ageing We are also collaborating on a grander scale, through a joint academic venture focusing on ageing, the ‘Leicester Academy for the Study of Ageing’ (LASA), which involves the local health service providers (acute and community), De Montfort University; University of Leicester; Leicester City Council; Leicestershire County Council and Leicester Age UK. Professors Jayne Brown and Simon Conroy jointly Chair LASA and have recently been joined by two further Chairs, Professors Kay de Vries and Bertha Ochieng. Karen Harrison Dening has also recently been appointed an Honorary Chair. LASA aims to improve outcomes for older people and those that care for them that takes a person-centred, whole system perspective. Our research will take a global perspective, but will seek to maximise benefits for the people of Leicester, Leicestershire and Rutland, including building capacity. We are undertaking applied, translational, interdisciplinary research, focused on older people, which will deliver research outcomes that address domains from: physical/medical; functional ability, cognitive/psychological; social or environmental factors. LASA also seeks to support commissioners and providers alike for advice on how to improve care for older people, whether by research, education or service delivery. Examples of recent research projects include: ‘Local History Café’ project specifically undertaking an evaluation on loneliness and social isolation; ‘Better Visits’ project focused on improving visiting for family members of people with dementia resident in care homes; and a study on health issues for older LGBT people in Leicester. Clinical Geriatric Medicine in Leicester We have developed a service which recognises the complexity of managing frail older people at the interface (acute care, emergency care and links with community services). There are presently 17 consultant geriatricians supported by existing multidisciplinary teams, including the largest complement of Advance Nurse Practitioners in the country. Together we deliver Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment to frail older people with urgent care needs in acute and community settings. The acute and emergency frailty units – Leicester Royal Infirmary This development aims at delivering Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment to frail older people in the acute setting. Patients are screened for frailty in the Emergency Department and then undergo a multidisciplinary assessment including a consultant geriatrician, before being triaged to the most appropriate setting. This might include admission to in-patient care in the acute or community setting, intermediate care (residential or home based), or occasionally other specialist care (e.g. cardiorespiratory). Our new emergency department is the county’s first frail friendly build and includes fantastic facilities aimed at promoting early recovering and reducing the risk of hospital associated harms. There is also a daily liaison service jointly run with the psychogeriatricians (FOPAL); we have been examining geriatric outreach to oncology and surgery as part of an NIHR funded study. We are home to the Acute Frailty Network, and those interested in service developments at the national scale would be welcome to get involved. Orthogeriatrics There are now dedicated hip fracture wards and joint care with anaesthetists, orthopaedic surgeons and geriatricians. There are also consultants in metabolic bone disease that run clinics. Community work Community work will consist of reviewing patients in clinic who have been triaged to return to the community setting following an acute assessment described above. Additionally, primary care colleagues refer to outpatients for sub-acute reviews. You will work closely with local GPs with support from consultants to deliver post-acute, subacute, intermediate and rehabilitation care services. Stroke Medicine 24/7 thrombolysis and TIA services. The latter is considered one of the best in the UK and along with the high standard of vascular surgery locally means one of the best performances regarding carotid intervention.
  • Adolescent Sleep Patterns are Associated with the Selection of Positive and Negative Emotional Situations
    Adolescent Sleep Patterns are Associated with the Selection of Positive and Negative Emotional Situations Palmer, Cara, A; Alfano, Candice, A; Bower, Joanne L. Poor sleep in youth is a risk factor for experiencing increased negative emotions and decreased positive emotions, which can contribute to the development of later emotional disorders. Understanding of specific processes that produce sleep-related alterations in emotion is limited, although preliminary studies suggest changes in the ability to appropriately regulate or control emotions as one mechanism. The current study builds on this research by examining the relationship between adolescent sleep patterns and a previously unexplored emotion regulation strategy: situation selection. Situation selection strategies are implemented prior to the onset of an emotional experience via decisions to approach rewarding/positive situations or avoid unwanted/negative situations. Fifty-four healthy adolescents (ages 13-17) completed one week of actigraphy and assessments of situation selection using: 1) trait-based questionnaires, 2) daily reports, and 3) an experimental lab task where participants were given the option to watch various emotional video clips of their choice. Greater variability in sleep timing was associated with less avoidance of negative emotional situations, and a longer sleep onset latency was associated with more avoidance of negative emotional situations. Greater variability in nightly sleep patterns was also associated with decreased tendencies to select positive emotional situations as assessed by trait questionnaires, daily reports, and the lab-based task, but only for boys. These findings add to a growing body of research on sleep and emotional experience and provide further support for the importance of intraindividual variability of sleep patterns in youth. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Factor Structure and Validation of the Mental Health Checklist (MHCL) for use in Isolated, Confined and Extreme Environments
    Factor Structure and Validation of the Mental Health Checklist (MHCL) for use in Isolated, Confined and Extreme Environments Bower, Joanne L.; Laughlin, M. S.; Connaboy, C.; Simpson, R. J.; Alfano, Candice A. Although human psychological risks gravely threaten the safety and success of future Mars missions, current knowledge of the mental health problems most likely to manifest during long duration space exploration (LDSE) is surprisingly inadequate. Previous research conducted during spaceflight and in analog settings has produced discrepant, sometimes contradictory findings and relied on measures that have not been validated for use in extreme environments, where the number, intensity, and duration of stressors exceed typical human experience. We therefore developed the Mental Health Checklist (MHCL) based on subject matter interviews and comprehensive literature reviews. In study one, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses resulted in 3 reliable subscales (positive adaptation, poor self-regulation, and anxious apprehension) explaining 53% of the total variance. In study two, we examined the reliability and convergent validity of the MHCL in large sample of participants stationed in Antarctica. Findings suggest the MHCL to have acceptable psychometric properties for use in extreme settings. We encourage other researchers to incorporate the MHCL in future studies, including spaceflight research, and to examine its sensitivity for capturing intra-individual symptom changes over time. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version.
  • Structured decision-making drives guidelines panels’ recommendations ‘for’ but not ‘against’ health interventions
    Structured decision-making drives guidelines panels’ recommendations ‘for’ but not ‘against’ health interventions Djulbegovic, B.; Reljic, T.; Elqayam, Shira; Cuker, A.; Hozo, I.; Zhou, Q.; Li, S.-A.; Alexander, P.; Nieuwlaat, R.; Wiercioch, W.; Schünemann, H.; Guyatt, G. Background: The determinants of guideline panels’ recommendations remain uncertain. Objective: To investigate factors considered by members of 8 panels convened by the American Society of Hematology (ASH) to develop guidelines using GRADE system. Study Design and Setting: web-based survey of the participants in the ASH guidelines panels. Analysis: two level hierarchical, random-effect, multivariable regression analysis to explore the relation between GRADE and non-GRADE factors and strength of recommendations (SOR). Results: In the primary analysis, certainty in evidence [OR=1.83; (95CI% 1.45 to 2.31)], balance of benefits and harms [OR=1.49 (95CI% 1.30 to 1.69)] and variability in patients’ values and preferences [OR=1.47 (95CI% 1.15 to 1.88)] proved the strongest predictors of SOR. In a secondary analysis, certainty of evidence was associated with a strong recommendation [OR=3.60 (95% CI 2.16 to 6.00)] when panel members recommended “for” interventions but not when they made recommendations “against” [OR=0.98 (95%CI: 0.57 to 1.8)] consistent with “yes” bias. Agreement between individual members and the group in rating SOR varied (kappa ranged from -0.01 to 0.64). Conclusion: GRADE’s conceptual framework proved, in general, highly associated with SOR. Failure of certainty of evidence to be associated with SOR against an intervention, suggest the need for improvements in the process.
  • PAID-11: a brief measure of diabetes distress validated in adults with type 1 diabetes
    PAID-11: a brief measure of diabetes distress validated in adults with type 1 diabetes Stanulewicz, Natalia; Mansell, P.; Cooke, D.; Hopkins, D.; Speight, J.; Blake, H. Objective: The Problem Areas In Diabetes (PAID) questionnaire is widely used to assess emotional distress related to living with diabetes, although it is lengthy for routine clinical use. Our aim was to determine whether the original 20-item PAID questionnaire can be abbreviated, whilst maintaining its reliability, validity and utility. Methods: We analysed data from the UK DAFNE (Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating) education programme for adults with Type 1 diabetes. Data were analysed at baseline (n=1547) and 1-year post intervention (n=846). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with principal axis factoring method was used to examine PAID responses within a random half of the baseline data (n=746). Then, two confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were conducted using the remaining baseline (n=801) and 1-year data. Reliability, predictive validity, convergent validity and responsiveness were also examined. Results: Based on the EFA results, which were corroborated by CFA, an 11-item PAID questionnaire was identified with a cut-off score of 18 indicating severe diabetes distress. In the current sample, this brief version has high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α=.93). Predictive validity was demonstrated with the PAID-11 identifying severe diabetes distress from the original 20-item measure, with 95% sensitivity and 96% specificity. Convergent validity was demonstrated by strong positive correlations with HADS anxiety and depressive symptoms (average r=.65 and r=.55, respectively), while divergent validity was shown with weaker correlations with EQ5D health status (average r=.37). Conclusions: Based on present results, PAID-11 appears to be a valid and reliable measure, which seems suitable for use as a brief tool for the detection of diabetes distress in adults with type 1 diabetes. Importantly, this tool may reduce participant burden in multi-measure studies. However, further studies are urgently needed to determine the validity and utility of PAID-11 beyond the UK DAFNE population.
  • Inside-Out: From Basic Emotions Theory to the Behavioral Ecology View
    Inside-Out: From Basic Emotions Theory to the Behavioral Ecology View Crivelli, Carlos; Fridlund, Alan J. Basic Emotions Theory (BET) is the most popular and deeply rooted psychological theory of both emotion and the facial behavior held to express it. We review its Western foundations and the key developments in its evolution, focusing on its parsing of facial expressions into two kinds: biological, categorical, iconic, universal “facial expressions of emotion,” versus modified, culturally diverse versions of those iconic expressions due to intermediation by learned “display rules.” We suggest that this dichotomy and its many corollaries are oversimplified, and that many of BET’s recent modifications are inconsistent in ways that may render it impossible to test and immune to falsification. In contrast, we suggest that the behavioral ecology view of facial displays, as an externalist and functionalist approach, resolves the quandaries and contradictions embedded in BET’s precepts and extensions. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI or URI link.
  • Comparison of the screening ability between the 32-item Hypomania T Checklist (HCL-32) and the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) for bipolar disorder: A meta-analysis and systematic review
    Comparison of the screening ability between the 32-item Hypomania T Checklist (HCL-32) and the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) for bipolar disorder: A meta-analysis and systematic review Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Xu, Dan-Dan; Liu, R.; Yang, Yuan; Grover, S.; Ungvari, G.S.; Hall, B.J.; Wang, Gang; Xiang, Yu-Tao The frequent misdiagnosis of bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with detrimental consequences and inappropriate treatments. The 32-item Hypomania Checklist (HCL-32) and the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) are widely used self-report screening instruments for BD. This is a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the psychometric properties of the HCL-32 and the MDQ based on the same patient samples. Two reviewers systematically and independently searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases. Studies using the HCL-32 and MDQ concurrently, and reporting their psychometric properties were included. Eleven studies that met the entry criteria were included in the systematic review, and 9 studies with relevant data were included in the meta-analysis. Using study-defined cutoffs, summary sensitivities were 82% (95% CI: 72%-89%) and 80% (95% CI: 71%-86%), while specificities were 57% (95% CI: 48%-66%) and 70% (95% CI: 59%-71%) for the HCL-32 and the MDQ respectively. Both the HCL-32 and the MDQ have acceptable psychometric properties to identify BD and appear to be useful screening tools for BD. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Cerebro-Cerebellar Pathways for Verbal Working Memory
    Cerebro-Cerebellar Pathways for Verbal Working Memory Sobczak-Edmans, M.; Lo, Y.-C.; Hsu, Y.-C.; Chen, Y.-J.; Kwok, F.Y.; Chuang, K. H.; Tseng, W.-Y.; Chen, S. H. A. The current study examined the structural and functional connectivity of the cerebrocerebellar network of verbal working memory as proposed by Chen and Desmond (2005a). Diffusion spectrum imaging was employed to establish structural connectivity between cerebro-cerebellar regions co-activated during a verbal working memory task. The inferior frontal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, pons, thalamus, superior cerebellum and inferior cerebellum were used as regions of interest to reconstruct and segment the contralateral white matter cerebro-cerebellar circuitry. The segmented pathways were examined further to establish the relationship between structural and effective connectivity as well as the relationship between structural connectivity and verbal working memory performance. No direct relationship between structural and effective connectivity was found but the results demonstrated that structural connectivity is indirectly related to effective connectivity as DCM models that resembled more closely with underlying white matter pathways had a higher degree of model inference confidence. Additionally, it was demonstrated that the structural connectivity of the ponto-cerebellar tract was associated with individual differences in response time for verbal working memory. The findings of the study contribute to further our understanding of the relationship between structural and functional connectivity and the impact of variability in verbal working memory performance. open access article
  • “I cannot live without my [tablet]”: Children’s experiences of using tablet technology within the home.
    “I cannot live without my [tablet]”: Children’s experiences of using tablet technology within the home. Hadlington, L. J.; White, Hannah J.; Curtis, Sarah The current study aimed to examine children’s experiences of using tablet technology within the home. Eighteen children aged between eight and nine years old took part in four separate focus group discussions. Thematic analysis revealed three predominant themes: a battle of boundaries, a tool to escape the surrounding world, and an emerging dependency on tablet technology. The data implies that there is a growing dependency on tablet technology use among this age group. The current study also outlines that many children engage in a variety of techniques to circumvent parental limits on their tablet usage. However, other children discussed a lack of clear rules and restrictions for their use of tablet devices. The findings suggest that covert and unregulated use of tablet technology may have a detrimental impact upon children, particularly in relation to reduced social interaction, fatigue and increased family tensions due to excessive usage. Further research of child interactions with a wide variety of digital technology and media is warranted. Such exploration would further our understanding of the potential advantages and disadvantages for such technology use, as well as presenting a pathway to produce more effective guidance on home use.
  • Experiences of individuals with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease using a novel web-based rehabilitation programme: SPACE FOR COPD
    Experiences of individuals with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease using a novel web-based rehabilitation programme: SPACE FOR COPD Bourne, Claire; Chaplin, Emma; Chantrell, Stacey; Singh, Sally; Apps, Lindsay Background: The SPACE for COPD self-management programme has been integrated into an online programme for patients to pursue at home with the support of healthcare professionals. Aim: To identify barriers and facilitators to participation in the web-based programme and to identify further development of the website. Method: This was a nested qualitative study as part of a feasibility study investigating web-based rehabilitation compared to standard pulmonary rehabilitation. Framework analysis was performed to identify themes. Findings: Four overarching themes were identified; programme content and reported gains; embedding the programme into daily routines; barriers to participating in the programme and support. These themes describe benefits to the programme including improved activity levels, exercise intensity and knowledge of the condition, as well as incorporation of exercise into daily routine. Both completers and non-completers acknowledged the importance of motivation and self-discipline to follow the programme and that the flexibility of the programme could help or hinder engagement as a result. Support from healthcare professionals was important and utilised for encouragement, health advice and technical support. Conclusion: The experiences of COPD patients using this web-based rehabilitation programme present how patients can benefit from such a resource and integrate it into their daily lifestyle. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Slow and fast beat sequences are represented differently through space
    Slow and fast beat sequences are represented differently through space De Tommaso, Matteo; Prpic, Valter The Spatial-Numerical Association of Response Codes (SNARC) suggests the existence of an association between number magnitude and response position, with faster left-hand responses to small numbers and faster right-hand responses to large numbers. Recent studies have revealed similar spatial association effects for non-numerical magnitudes, such as temporal durations and musical stimuli. In the present study we investigated whether a spatial association effect exists between music tempo, expressed in beats per minutes (bpm), and response position. In particular, we were interested whether this effect is consistent through different bpm ranges. We asked participants to judge whether a target beat sequence was faster or slower than a reference sequence. Three groups of participants judged beat sequences from three different bpm ranges, a wide range (40, 80, 160, 200 bpm) and two narrowed ranges (“slow” tempo, 40, 56, 88, 104 bpm; “fast” tempo 133, 150, 184, 201 bpm). Results showed a clear SNARC-like effect for music tempo only in the narrowed “fast” tempo range, with faster left-hand responses to 133 and 150 bpm and faster right-hand responses to 184 and 201 bpm. Conversely, a similar association did not emerge in the wide nor in the narrowed "slow" tempo ranges. This evidence suggests that music tempo is spatially represented as other continuous quantities, but its representation might be narrowed to a particular range of tempi. Moreover, music tempo and temporal duration might be represented across space with an opposite direction. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version.
  • The Influence of Encoding and Testing Directions on Retrieval of Spatial Information in Explored and Described Environments
    The Influence of Encoding and Testing Directions on Retrieval of Spatial Information in Explored and Described Environments Santoro, Ilaria; Sors, Fabrizio; Mingolo, Serena; Prpic, Valter; Grassi, Michele; Agostini, Tiziano; Murgia, Mauro The verbal descriptions of an environment elicit a spatial mental model, in which the linear disposition of the described objects might be related to the properties of the description. In particular the direction from which the environment is encoded might shape the spatial mental model, as a consequence of a cultural bias in reading and writing direction. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of the direction in which objects are encoded on the retrieval of spatial information. In two experiments we asked participants to encode an environment through either physical exploration or verbal description, that are encoding modalities which preserve the sequential presentation of spatial information. We manipulated both the encoding and testing directions of the spatial information, and tested participants by using a two-alternative forced choice task. In both experiments, the results did not reveal any significant effect, disconfirming the idea of the left-right cultural bias for western people for this type of task. The lack of effect suggests that encoding an environment through physical movement and verbal descriptions determines the development of a mental representation which is relatively independent from encoding sequential order. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version.
  • How do Undergraduate students construct their view of cybercrime? Exploring definitions of cybercrime, perceptions of online risk and victimisation
    How do Undergraduate students construct their view of cybercrime? Exploring definitions of cybercrime, perceptions of online risk and victimisation Conway, G.; Hadlington, L. J. While cybercrime is recognized as an increasing problem in society, it is unclear how users perceive cybercrime and online risks. This qualitative study explored how undergraduate students in England, a group who are at relatively high risk of victimization, viewed language and concepts associated with cybercrime. Three focus groups were conducted with a total of 16 18- to 21-year-old undergraduate students, and data were analyzed inductively and thematically. The themes explored in this article include: the physical world versus the virtual world; confusion regarding the law (including a perceived lack of police interest in responding to cybercrime); the normalization of risky or harmful online behaviour; and victimization. The themes also point towards a variety of misconceptions about cybercrime alongside an ambivalence towards the potential risk of becoming a victim. The data provide a potential step towards tailoring education packages and awareness programmes to ensure at-risk groups are equipped with actionable mechanisms to protect themselves. Further research is suggested in terms of exploring how such perceptions can be changed through effective training and awareness programmes, potentially reducing the level of risk in this group. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • The resilience paradox: flooding experience, coping and climate change mitigation intentions
    The resilience paradox: flooding experience, coping and climate change mitigation intentions Ogunbode, Charles Adedayo; Bohm, Gisela; Capstick, Stuart; Demski, Christina; Spence, Alexa; Tausch, Nicole Climate change is projected to increase the frequency, intensity and unpredictability of extreme weather events across the globe and these events are likely to have significant mental health implications. The mental health literature broadly characterises negative emotional reactions to extreme weather experiences as undesirable impacts on wellbeing. Yet, other research in psychology suggests that negative emotional responses to extreme weather are an important motivation for personal action on climate change. This article addresses the intersection of mental health and functional perspectives on negative emotions, with a specific focus on the potential that reduced negative emotional responses to extreme weather may also translate to diminished motivation to undertake climate change mitigation actions – which we term the ‘resilience paradox’. Using survey data gathered in the aftermath of severe flooding across the UK in winter 2013/2014, we present new evidence indicating that self-appraised coping ability moderates the link between flooding experience and negative emotions and thereby attenuates the indirect link between flooding experience and climate change mitigation intentions. We conclude that support for flood victims should extend beyond addressing emotional, physical and financial stresses to include acknowledgement of the involvement of climate change and communication of the need for action to combat future climate risks. open access article
  • Tracking Economic Value of Products in Natural Settings: A Wireless EEG Study
    Tracking Economic Value of Products in Natural Settings: A Wireless EEG Study Roberts, Hannah; Soto, V.; Tyson-Carr, J.; Kokmotou, K.; Cook, Stephanie; Fallon, N.; Giesbrecht, T.; Stancak, A. Economic decision making refers to the process of individuals translating their preference into subjective value (SV). Little is known about the dynamics of the neural processes that underpin this form of value-based decision making and no studies have investigated these processes outside of controlled laboratory settings. The current study investigated the spatio-temporal dynamics that accompany economic valuation of products using mobile electroencephalography (EEG) and eye tracking techniques. Participants viewed and rated images of household products in a gallery setting while EEG and eye tracking data were collected wirelessly. A Becker-DeGroot-Marschak (BDM) auction task was subsequently used to quantify the individual’s willingness to pay (WTP) for each product. WTP was used to classify products into low, low medium, high medium and high economic value conditions. Eye movement related potentials (EMRP) were examined, and independent component analysis (ICA) was used to separate sources of activity from grand averaged EEG data. Four independent components (ICs) of EMRPs were modulated by WTP (i.e., SV) in the latency range of 150–250 ms. Of the four value-sensitive ICs, one IC displayed enhanced amplitude for all value conditions excluding low value, and another IC presented enhanced amplitude for low value products only. The remaining two value-sensitive ICs resolved inter-mediate levels of SV. Our study quantified, for the first time, the neural processes involved in economic value based decisions in a natural setting. Results suggest that multiple spatio-temporal brain activation patterns mediate the attention and aversion of products which could reflect an early valuation system. The EMRP parietal P200 component could reflect an attention allocation mechanism that separates the lowest-value products (IC7) from products of all other value (IC4), suggesting that low-value items are categorized early on as being aversive. While none of the ICs showed linear amplitude changes that parallel SV’s of products, results suggest that a combination of multiple components may sub-serve a fine-grained resolution of the SV of products. open access article
  • Bone Health in Adult Women with ED: A Longitudinal Community-Based Study
    Bone Health in Adult Women with ED: A Longitudinal Community-Based Study Robinson, L.; Aldridge, V. K.; Clark, E. M.; Misra, M.; Micali, N. Although Eating Disorders (ED) are known to affect bone health and development, little is known about the longitudinal effect of ED and ED behaviours on bone health in community dwelling adult women. Women (n=3,507) enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) participated in a two-phase prevalence study to assess lifetime ED and ED behaviours (fasting, restrictive eating, vomiting and misuse of medication). Crude and adjusted linear regression methods investigated the association between ED diagnoses and behaviours, and total body, hip, leg and arm bone mineral density (BMD) DXA scans at mean ages of 48 and 52 years. Lifetime occurrence of Anorexia Nervosa (AN) was associated with lower BMD Z-scores for the whole body (mean difference (MD) =-0.28; 95% CI: -0.49, -0.05), hip (MD=-0.45; 95% CI -0.74, -0.16), leg (MD=-0.28; 95% CI -0.52, -0.03) and arm (MD=-0.44; 95% CI -0.68, -0.19) compared to no ED. This effect was mostly accounted for by lowest ever BMI. In post-hoc analyses, Restrictive AN, but not Binge-Purge AN was associated with a lower total body BMD Z-scores (MD=-0.37; 95% CI -0.62, -0.12). Lifetime Fasting and Restrictive Eating were associated with low BMD of the total body, hip, arm and leg in adjusted analyses, all p<0.05. Both lifetime ED diagnoses and ED behaviours in a large community sample were predictive of low BMD in mid-life. This study confirms that the effects of AN, fasting and restrictive eating, and low BMI on bone health seen in clinical samples also occur in community samples.
  • Cognitive functions in smoking and non-smoking patients with schizophrenia: A systematic review and meta-analysis of comparative studies
    Cognitive functions in smoking and non-smoking patients with schizophrenia: A systematic review and meta-analysis of comparative studies Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, S.; Zheng, W.; Zhong, B-L.; Ng, C.H.; Ungvarie, G.S.; Wang, C-X.; Li, X-H.; Xiang, Y-T. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • How and why we reason from is to ought
    How and why we reason from is to ought Evans, J. St. B. T.; Elqayam, Shira Originally identified by Hume, the validity of is-ought inference is much debated in the meta-ethics literature. Our work shows that inference from is to ought typically proceeds from contextualised, value-laden causal utility conditional, bridging into a deontic conclusion. Such conditional statements tell us what actions are needed to achieve or avoid consequences that are good or bad. Psychological research has established that people generally reason fluently and easily with utility conditionals. Our own research also has shown that people’s reasoning from is to ought (deontic introduction) is pragmatically sensitive and adapted to achieving the individual’s goals. But how do we acquire the necessary deontic rules? In this paper, we provide a rationale for this facility linked to Evans’s (2010) framework of dual mind rationality. People have an old mind (in evolutionary terms) which derives its rationality by repeating what has worked in the past, mostly by experiential learning. New mind rationality, in contrast, is evolutionarily recent, uniquely developed in humans, and draws on our ability to mentally simulate hypothetical events removed in time and place. We contend that the new mind achieves its goals by inducing and applying deontic rules and that a mechanism of deontic introduction evolved for this purpose. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • SNARC-like compatibility effects for physical and phenomenal magnitudes: A study on visual illusions
    SNARC-like compatibility effects for physical and phenomenal magnitudes: A study on visual illusions Prpic, Valter; Soranzo, Alessandro; Santoro, Ilaria; Fantoni, Carlo; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano; Murgia, Mauro Both numerical and non-numerical magnitudes elicit similar Spatial-Numerical Association of Response Codes (SNARC) effects, with small magnitudes associated with left hand responses and large magnitudes associated with right hand responses (Dehaene, Bossini, Giraux, 1993). In the present study, we investigated whether the phenomenal size of visual illusions elicits the same SNARC-like effect revealed for the physical size of pictorial surfaces. Four experiments were conducted by using the Delboeuf illusion (Experiment 1) and the Kanizsa triangle illusion (Experiments 2, 3 & 4). Experiment 1 suggests the presence of a SNARC-like compatibility effect for the physical size of the inducers, while this effect was not revealed for the phenomenal size of the induced elements, possibly masked by a stronger effect of the inducers. A SNARC-like effect for the phenomenal size of the Kanizsa triangle was revealed when participants directly compared the size of the triangles (Experiment 4). Conversely, when participants performed an indirect task (orientation judgment), the SNARC-like effect was present neither for the illusory nor for the physical displays (Experiments 2 & 3). The effect revealed for the size of illusory triangles was comparable to that of real triangles with physical contours, suggesting that both phenomenal and physical magnitudes similarly elicit SNARC-like effects. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • True versus strategic fairness in a common resource dilemma: Evidence from the dual-process perspective
    True versus strategic fairness in a common resource dilemma: Evidence from the dual-process perspective Lu, Su; Au, Wing Tung; Zhu, Yi; Jiang, Feng Common resource dilemmas involve collectively coordinating individual choices to promote group efficiency. Equal division represents one of the most important coordination rules. Previous research suggests that individuals follow the equality rule for different reasons. Some individuals behave cooperatively out of their concern for other’s welfare, whereas some individuals cooperate strategically to enhance personal gains. Building on the dual-process perspective, the authors aim to differentiate strategic fairness from true fairness in solving a resource dilemma. In four experiments, the effect of cognitive processing manipulations on individual harvesting behavior in a one-shot resource dilemma was tested against participants with different social values. Results consistently showed that prosocials, who value joint outcome and equality, requested significantly less money than did proselfs, who value personal gain. More importantly, prosocials in the intuition and deliberation conditions request similar amounts, whereas proselfs in the intuition condition request more money than those in the deliberation condition. The results were further validated by a follow-up meta-analysis based on the four experiments. The implications of the dual-process perspective for social coordination research are discussed. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Validierung der deutschen Übersetzung des Injustice Experience Questionnaire (IEQ) in 5 ambulanten Schmerzbehandlungseinrichtungen
    Validierung der deutschen Übersetzung des Injustice Experience Questionnaire (IEQ) in 5 ambulanten Schmerzbehandlungseinrichtungen Steiger, B.; Welsch, K.; Niederstrasser, Nils Georg; Hartmann, S.; Nilges, P.; Ljutow, A.; Ettlin, D. Introduction Occupational and social rehabilitation can be influenced by perceived injustice that results from pain. Currently, the Injustice Experience Questionnaire (IEQ), the tool most commonly used to assess perceived injustice, is not available in German. The aim of this study was the validation of the German-language version of the IEQ. Materials and methods The validation of the IEQ was carried out via a web-based survey. For this purpose, participants completed the IEQ and construct-related scales analogous to the original study Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK), Depression scale of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales (D-DASS), Pain Disability Index (PDI), and McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ). In addition, the participants completed questions on their socioeconomic status and on the cause of their pain, taken from the German Pain Questionnaire. Results Of 223 respondents, 134 (60.1%) returned a completed questionnaire and were included in the study. In all, 26.1% of participants reported suffering from pain resulting from accidents. None of the reviewed one- to three-factor solutions for the IEQ’s structure achieved a good model fit. The best results were found for a two-factor solution, whereby the exploratory factor analysis revealed almost all items loaded highly on both factors and the confirmatory factor analysis showed high correlations between the factors. These findings are consistent with previous studies. The IEQ correlated highly and significantly with the other psychological instruments. There were no floor or ceiling effects. Cronbach’s α for the German IEQ version was 0.93 and thus attests a high level of internal consistency. Conclusion The analyses attest the excellent psychometric properties of the German translation of the IEQ and so the German-language version of the IEQ can be used as a validated questionnaire to screen for perceived injustice.
  • Attribution matters: revisiting the link between extreme weather experience and climate change mitigation responses
    Attribution matters: revisiting the link between extreme weather experience and climate change mitigation responses Ogunbode, Charles Adedayo; Demski, Christina; Capstick, Stuart; Sposato, Robert Gennaro The literature suggests that extreme weather experiences have potential to increase climate change engagement by influencing the way people perceive the proximity and implications of climate change. Yet, limited attention has been directed at investigating how individual differences in the subjective interpretation of extreme weather events as indications of climate change moderate the link between extreme weather experiences and climate change attitudes. This article contends that subjective attribution of extreme weather events to climate change is a necessary condition for extreme weather experiences to be translated into climate change mitigation responses, and that subjective attribution of extreme weather to climate change is influenced by the psychological and social contexts in which individuals appraise their experiences with extreme weather. Using survey data gathered in the aftermath of severe flooding across the UK in winter 2013/2014, personal experience of this flooding event is shown to only directly predict perceived threat from climate change, and indirectly predict climate change mitigation responses, among individuals who subjectively attributed the floods to climate change. Additionally, subjective attribution of the floods to climate change is significantly predicted by pre-existing climate change belief, political affiliation and perceived normative cues. Attempts to harness extreme weather experiences as a route to engaging the public must be attentive to the heterogeneity of opinion on the attributability of extreme weather events to climate change. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Meta-analysis of adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy in patients with 55 HIV infection in China
    Meta-analysis of adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy in patients with 55 HIV infection in China Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Jin, Y.; Chen, C.; Zheng, W.; Wang, S-B.; Ungvarie, G.S.; Ng, C.H.; Zhang, X.D.; Wang, G.; Xiang, Y-T. With the widespread implementation of antiretroviral therapy in many countries, the HIV/AIDS epidemic has declined. However, little is known about the prevalence of adherence rate to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) in patients with HIV infection in China. We conducted the first meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies of treatment adherence ( 95%) to HAART in Chinese patients. Both English (PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, and Web of Science) and Chinese (WanFang Database, CNKI, and SinoMed) databases were systematically and independently searched by three investigators. Studies with adherence rate estimates of HAART were included. Adherence rate estimates of each eligible study were extracted and pooled using the random-effects model. A total of 40 studies conducted in China were eligible and analyzed. The mean rate of  95% HAART adherence was 81.1% (95%CI: 75.1%- 88.0%, I2 = 97.3%) at one week, 80.9% (95%CI: 74.7%- 85.9%, I2 =96.6%) at one month, and 68.3% (95%CI: 46.1%- 84.4%, I2 = 97.1%) at 3 months or longer. Subgroup analyses revealed that samples with no gender predominance, low education level, middle economic region, rural area, older age (42.3 years or older), recent publication year (2013 or later) were correlated to higher HAART adherence. The average rate of HAART adherence was relatively high in China, which suggests effective HIV/AIDS prevention and control measures and policy. However, the level of HAART adherence tended to decrease over the treatment course. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • A new human delayed-matching-to-place test in a virtual environment reverse-translated from the rodent watermaze paradigm: Characterization of performance measures and sex differences
    A new human delayed-matching-to-place test in a virtual environment reverse-translated from the rodent watermaze paradigm: Characterization of performance measures and sex differences Buckley, Matthew G.; Bast, Tobias full text can be found at: http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/id/eprint/52064; The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Comparing two short versions of the 32‐item Hypomania Checklist (HCL‐32) for patients with bipolar disorder
    Comparing two short versions of the 32‐item Hypomania Checklist (HCL‐32) for patients with bipolar disorder Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Feng, Y.; Wang, F.; Huang, Wei; Ng, C.H.; Ungvari, G.S.; Wang, G.; Xiang, Y-T Purpose To compare the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) between Hypomania Checklist‐20 (HCL‐20) and HCL‐16. Design and Methods Altogether, 350 subjects with bipolar disorders (BD) or major depressive disorders (MDD) were included. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and area under the curve between the HCL‐20 and the HCL‐16 for BD and its subtypes were compared. Findings The HCL‐16 demonstrated superior performance in terms of sensitivity + specificity than HCL‐20. For discriminating BD and BD‐I patients from MDD patients, HCL‐16 showed better sensitivity than HCL‐20, while HCL‐20 showed better specificity than HCL‐16. Practice Implications Our results showed that both HCL‐20 and HCL‐16 have a fair screening ability, but HCL‐16 showed a relatively superior performance considering its length. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Evaluating the relationship between adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) and social and clinical characteristics in Chinese patients with HIV
    Evaluating the relationship between adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) and social and clinical characteristics in Chinese patients with HIV D’Amato, R. C.; Wang, Tang; Yan, Hong; Wang, Wei; Li, Shi-Yue; Wang, Yuan-Yuan This study investigated the adherence rate of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) in patients with HIV infection in China. The research also examined the adherence rate related to demographic and clinical characteristics with these patients. A total of 516 patients with HIV infection were enrolled from the Wuhan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Patients reported their one-month HAART adherence rate, as well as their demographic and clinical characteristics. Using the ≥95% HAART one-month adherence rate, the patients were divided into an adherence group and a non-adherence group. The two groups were compared to identify differences. Compared to the adherence group (92.2%), the non- adherence patients (7.8%) experienced greater perceived stigma as measured by Berger Stigma Scale, and tended to have more homosexual sexual partners. Logistic regression analyses revealed that having less confidence in HAART treatment (p=0.04, OR=0.2, 95% CI =0.03–0.9) and more homosexual sex partners (p=0.049, OR=1.5, 95% CI=1.0–2.3) were independently associated with HAART non-adherence. More attention should be paid to patients with HIV infection who did not adherence to HAART treatment. Regular screening and psychological and social support should be considered as an intervention with non- adherence patients living with HIV.
  • Using every day client and advocate clinical interviews to gather outcome measurements – a mixed methods framework
    Using every day client and advocate clinical interviews to gather outcome measurements – a mixed methods framework Bixley, Morag; Williamson, I.; Scase, M. O. Abstract introduction Aphasia is a multimodality language difficulty experienced by people who have a left sided stroke. Speech and Language Therapists (SLTs) who work with People with Aphasia (PWA) often provide word finding therapy because word finding difficulties (wfd) are one of the most debilitating effects of aphasic language loss. The majority of published word finding research uses mixed therapy techniques in which PWA practise accessing, using and combining sounds and words. This therapy trial is one of only three case studies that describe PWA receiving therapy that is purely semantic. Semantic therapy is particularly relevant to people with severe aphasia. This is because the evidence base underpinning language therapy for PWA supports therapy for people who can talk: very little research addresses the problems of those who have very limited access to output. This case study was designed to add to the evidence base that supports language therapy for people with severe aphasia who have no access to propositional speech. Abstract Method This paper reports on a single therapy trial conducted within a cohort of ten individual semantic therapy trails. Research design incorporated best practise recommendations for therapy studies (Brady et al, 2012, Tate et al, 2008 and Moher et al 2001). In the first six weeks of this single therapy trial, P participated in six therapy sessions of semantic therapy with word finding (SAT with). In a further six weeks of therapy P was provided with semantic therapy without word finding (SAT without). Results and conclusions Descriptive and statistical analysis of the impact of therapy suggested that P’s word finding skills improved after both types of semantic therapy. The effects of therapy generalised and were permanent. There was some suggestion that SAT with therapy was more successful that SAT without therapy, but this difference may have been attributable to an order effect. This abstract provides single clinical case evidence to support impairment based semantic therapy for people with severe aphasia.
  • Thinking Outside of the Box II: Disrupting the Cognitive Map
    Thinking Outside of the Box II: Disrupting the Cognitive Map Buckley, Matthew G.; Haselgrove, Mark; Smith, Alastair D. A number of influential spatial learning theories posit that organisms encode a viewpoint independent (i.e. allocentric) representation of the global boundary shape of their environment in order to support spatial reorientation and place learning. In contrast to the trial and error learning mechanisms that support domain-general processes, a representation of the global-shape of the environment is thought to be encoded automatically as part of a cognitive map, and without interference from other spatial cues. To date, however, this core theoretical assumption has not been appropriately examined. This is because previous attempts to address this question have failed to employ tasks that fully dissociate reorientation based on an allocentric representation of global-shape from egocentric reorientation strategies. Here, we address this issue in two experiments. Participants were trained to navigate to a hidden goal on one side of a virtual arena (e.g. the inside) before being required to find the same point on the alternative side (e.g. the outside). At test, performing the correct search behaviour requires an allocentric representation of the global boundary-shape. Using established associative learning procedures of overshadowing and blocking, we find that search behaviour at test is disrupted when participants were able to form landmark-goal associations during training. These results demonstrate that encoding of an allocentric representation of boundary information is susceptible to interference from landmark cues, and is not acquired through special means. Instead, the results suggest that allocentric representations of environmental boundaries are acquired through the same kind of error-correction mechanisms that support domain-general non-spatial learning. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Exploration of the psychometric properties of the 33-item Hypomania Checklist - external assessment (HCL-33-EA)
    Exploration of the psychometric properties of the 33-item Hypomania Checklist - external assessment (HCL-33-EA) Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Ungvari, G. S.; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Wang, Gang; Ng, Chee H.; Feng, Yuan; Meng, F.; Angst, J. Background Misdiagnosis of bipolar disorder (BD) is common in clinical practice, leading to inappropriate treatment and detrimental consequences. The 33-item Hypomania Checklist (HCL-33) is a newly developed screening instrument for hypomanic symptoms in patients with BD. The 33-item Hypomania Checklist-external assessment (HCL-33-EA) is a version of the HCL-33 for carers of patients with mood disorders. In this study, the psychometric properties of the HCL-33-EA in a Chinese population were explored. Method A total of 182 inpatients and 240 carers were recruited in this study. Patients were diagnosed with bipolar depression or major depressive disorder (MDD) according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). The patients completed the HCL-33, while their carers filled out the HCL-33-EA. Results The HCL-33-EA showed high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.876) with two-factorial dimensions. Paired samples t-test revealed that the mean score of the HCL-33-EA was significantly lower than that of the HCL-33 (t = 10.1, p < 0.001). Spearman's rho showed that the two instruments were significantly and positively correlated (r = 0.46, p < 0.001). Conclusion The HCL-33-EA has acceptable psychometric properties and could be an effective screening tool for patients’ carers, enabling identification of the symptoms of hypomania. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • The Seven Pathways to Nature Connectedness: A Focus Group Exploration
    The Seven Pathways to Nature Connectedness: A Focus Group Exploration Lumber, Ryan; Richardson, Miles; Sheffield, David The Biophilia hypothesis has been a catalyst for research on the human-nature relationship, with connection to nature an important area. However, the mechanisms involved in achieving this connection have not been explored in a systematic way. Three focus groups were conducted using the Biophilia hypothesis as a framework to explore how connectedness to nature can be achieved from the perspective of individuals who engage with nature through the Biophilic values. Seven themes emerged from the thematic analysis: investigating nature through scientific enquiry, engaging the senses, creating idyllic nature, noting nature through artistry, nature conservation, growing food and engaging with wild nature. Nature connectedness may result from specific interactions with nature with the seven pathways having implications for both the formation and maintenance of nature connectedness. The factors identified should inform interventions to increase the nature connectedness of individuals with a low connection but further empirical study is required. open access article
  • Brain Responses to Emotional Faces in Natural Settings: A Wireless Mobile EEG Recording Study
    Brain Responses to Emotional Faces in Natural Settings: A Wireless Mobile EEG Recording Study Soto, V.; Tyson-Carr, J.; Kokmotou, K.; Roberts, Hanna; Cook, Stephanie; Fallon, N.; Giesbrecht, T.; Stancak, A. The detection of a human face in a visual field and correct reading of emotional expression of faces are important elements in everyday social interactions, decision making and emotional responses. Although brain correlates of face processing have been established in previous fMRI and electroencephalography (EEG)/MEG studies, little is known about how the brain representation of faces and emotional expressions of faces in freely moving humans. The present study aimed to detect brain electrical potentials that occur during the viewing of human faces in natural settings. 64-channel wireless EEG and eye-tracking data were recorded in 19 participants while they moved in a mock art gallery and stopped at times to evaluate pictures hung on the walls. Positive, negative and neutral valence pictures of objects and human faces were displayed. The time instants in which pictures first occurred in the visual field were identified in eye-tracking data and used to reconstruct the triggers in continuous EEG data after synchronizing the time axes of the EEG and eye-tracking device. EEG data showed a clear face-related event-related potential (ERP) in the latency interval ranging from 165 to 210 ms (N170); this component was not seen whilst participants were viewing non-living objects. The face ERP component was stronger during viewing disgusted compared to neutral faces. Source dipole analysis revealed an equivalent current dipole in the right fusiform gyrus (BA37) accounting for N170 potential. Our study demonstrates for the first time the possibility of recording brain responses to human faces and emotional expressions in natural settings. This finding opens new possibilities for clinical, developmental, social, forensic, or marketing research in which information about face processing is of importance. open access article
  • Context-appropriate environmental attitude measurement in Nigeria using the Campbell paradigm
    Context-appropriate environmental attitude measurement in Nigeria using the Campbell paradigm Ogunbode, Charles Adedayo; Henn, Laura; Tausch, Nicole The need to tailor environmental policies in Africa with an understanding of public attitudes is commonly acknowledged, but efforts to generate such understanding are generally constrained by a lack of reliable context-appropriate measures. Attempts to ‘borrow’ Western measures in African research are typically undermined by the cross-cultural inequivalence of constructs and theoretical models. Consequently, we tested the potential of the Campbell paradigm—an approach that enables context-specific adaptation of attitude measurement, among a Nigerian sample (N = 543). Data were gathered with a questionnaire survey. Our findings show that a context-appropriate environmental attitude measure can be obtained by assessing the behaviours and intention statements Nigerians execute in response to environmental issues. On average, pro-environmental attitude levels among our sample were characterized by professed intentions to perform the most difficult behaviours and actual engagement in the least difficult behaviours. The environmental attitude measure derived using the Campbell paradigm is positively related to other conventional attitude indicators including the perceived threat of climate change, concern, efficacy beliefs and acceptance of responsibility for mitigation. We conclude that the Campbell paradigm offers a viable avenue to proceed beyond simple assessments of professed environmental attitudes to more accurate evaluations of Africans’ disposition to strive for the achievement of ecological goals in difficult circumstances. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Exploring the role of work identity and work locus of control in information security awareness
    Exploring the role of work identity and work locus of control in information security awareness Janicke, Helge; Hadlington, L. J.; Yevseyeva, Iryna; Jones, Kevin; Popovac, Masa A growing body of research evidence has been focused on exploring aspects of individual differences in the context of human factors and adherence to organisational information security. The present study aimed to extend this research by exploring three individual variables related directly to the individual’s perceived control within the workplace, their commitment to current work identity, and the extent to which they are reconsidering commitment to work. A total 1003 participants aged between 18-65 (Mean = 40.29; SD = 12.28), who were in full or part-time employment took part in the study. The results demonstrated that work locus of control acted as a significant predictor for total scores on a measure of information security awareness. Those individuals who demonstrated more externality had weaker engagement in accepted information security within the workplace. The findings from the current study are discussed in the context of potential links to counterproductive work behaviours, as well as presenting possible practical routes for intervention strategies to help mitigate poor engagement in information security awareness. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Stop marginalising men with breast cancer
    Stop marginalising men with breast cancer Quincey, Kerry
  • Deutsche transkulturelle Übersetzung des Injustice Experience Questionnaire (IEQ)
    Deutsche transkulturelle Übersetzung des Injustice Experience Questionnaire (IEQ) Niederstrasser, Nils Georg; Steiger, B.; Welsh, K.; Hartmann, S.; Nilges, P.; Ljutow, A.; Ettlin, D. Introduction: Occupational and social rehabilitation is influenced by perceived injustice as a result of injury. To assess perceived injustice, the Injustice Experience Questionnaire (IEQ) has been developed and is available in English. The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the English version of the IEQ into German. Methodology: The IEQ was translated and adapted into German according to the criteria for transcultural adaptation of self-assessment tools. The translation was examined in a sample of 19 pain patients for its comprehensibility and item meanings, as well as offensiveness. Data were assessed using nonparametric statistical methods. Results: The German translation of the IEQ showed a high degree of comprehensibility. The items’ meanings and participants’ selected answer options were rated as highly plausible by two raters. Item wordings were rated neither as offensive nor unacceptable by participants. The German translation of the english term “negligence” in item 3 by the term “Unachtsamkeit” was assessed as misunderstandable, therefore it was replaced by the term “Unaufmerksamkeit". Conclusion: The study attests the cultural and linguistic intelligibility and precision of the German translation of the IEQ. In a follow-up study, the translation should be validated in a larger sample of pain patients. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Facial expressions
    Facial expressions Fridlund, Alan J.; Crivelli, Carlos; Jarillo, Sergio; Fernández-Dols, José-Miguel; Russell, James A.
  • Distinct facial expressions represent pain and pleasure across cultures
    Distinct facial expressions represent pain and pleasure across cultures Chen, Chaona; Crivelli, Carlos; Garrod, Oliver G. B.; Schyns, Philippe G.; Fernández-Dols, José-Miguel; Jack, Rachael E. Real-world studies show that the facial expressions produced during pain and orgasm—two different and intense affective experiences—are virtually indistinguishable. However, this finding is counterintuitive, because facial expressions are widely considered to be a powerful tool for social interaction. Consequently, debate continues as to whether the facial expressions of these extreme positive and negative affective states serve a communicative function. Here, we address this debate from a novel angle by modeling the mental representations of dynamic facial expressions of pain and orgasm in 40 observers in each of two cultures (Western, East Asian) using a data-driven method. Using a complementary approach of machine learning, an information-theoretic analysis, and a human perceptual discrimination task, we show that mental representations of pain and orgasm are physically and perceptually distinct in each culture. Cross-cultural comparisons also revealed that pain is represented by similar face movements across cultures, whereas orgasm showed distinct cultural accents. Together, our data show that mental representations of the facial expressions of pain and orgasm are distinct, which questions their nondiagnosticity and instead suggests they could be used for communicative purposes. Our results also highlight the potential role of cultural and perceptual factors in shaping the mental representation of these facial expressions. We discuss new research directions to further explore their relationship to the production of facial expressions. open access article
  • End-user frustrations and failures in digital technology: exploring the role of Fear of Missing Out, Internet addiction and personality
    End-user frustrations and failures in digital technology: exploring the role of Fear of Missing Out, Internet addiction and personality Hadlington, L. J.; Scase, M. O. The present study aimed to explore the potential relationship between individual differences in responses to failures with digital technology. In total, 630 participants (50% male) aged between 18e68 years (M ¼ 41.41, SD ¼ 14.18) completed an online questionnaire. This included a self-report, response to failures in digital technology scale, a measure of Fear of Missing Out, Internet addiction, and the BIG-5 personality traits. Fear of Missing Out, Internet addiction, extraversion, and neuroticism all served as significant positive predictors for maladaptive responses to failures in digital technology. Agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness acted as significant negative predictors for maladaptive responses to failures in digital technology. The responses to failures in digital technology scale presented good internal reliability, with items loading onto four key factors, these being; ‘maladaptive responses’, ‘adaptive responses’, ‘external support and venting frustrations’, and ‘anger and resignation’. The findings are discussed in the context of the end user experience, particularly where individual differences are seen to influence the level of frustration arising from a failure. The findings are also seen as a potential route for reducing the negative impact of failures in digital technology, particularly in the context of organisational productivity and responses to malicious cyberattacks. open access article
  • Fearing Compassion Has No Effect on Physiological Indicators Despite Changes in Psychological Well-Being
    Fearing Compassion Has No Effect on Physiological Indicators Despite Changes in Psychological Well-Being Gill, J. K.; Scase, M. O. Objectives: Research has not yet understood whether fears of compassion prevent effectiveness of compassionate interventions on physical and psychological well-being. This study anticipated higher fears of compassion would lead to greater physiological responses, higher self-criticism and psychological distress whilst reducing social safeness. Design: Independent groups of high and low fears of compassion were allocated using a median split during data collation. Galvanic skin response (GSR) and pulse were the dependent physical variables, and social safeness, self-criticism and psychological symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress were the psychological dependent variables. Method: 60 undergraduate students aged 18-43 were sampled from De Montfort University. A median split resulted in 31 participants in the high fears group and 29 in the low fears group. All participants were asked to read information sheets and sign two consent forms. Participants then completed the Fears of Compassion Scale, the Forms of Self-Criticism/Self-Reassuring Scale, the Social Safeness Scale and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS). Two compassionate exercises were then administered using audio headsets whilst pulse and GSR were measured using AD instruments. Finally, participants were debriefed, thanked for their time and informed they could withdraw their data up to three days after the experiment. Results: Despite, a non-significant finding on physiological indicators, a significant result was found on psychological indicators of well-being, (F(3,56)= 5.721, p<.01, Wilks Lambda = .765, partial n2= .235). Independent analysis found differences in social safeness (F(1,58)= 14.46, p<.01, partial n2= .20) and DASS (F(1,58)= 6.53, p<.05, partial n2= .101). Social safeness was higher in the low fears of compassion group, 46.87 (SD= 6.06), whilst DASS was greater in the high fears group, 23.34 (SD= 12.91). Conclusions: These findings suggested despite psychological effects from fearing compassion, fears do not have any impact on physical soothing. This suggested compassionate exercises remain effective for reducing physiological factors of distress for those with higher fears of compassion but may hinder improvement in psychological distress.
  • Suicidality and clinical correlates in Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) with HIV infection
    Suicidality and clinical correlates in Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) with HIV infection Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Dong, Min; Zhang, Q.; Xu, Dan-Dan; Zhao, Jin; Ng, Chee H.; Ungvari, G. S.; Jia, Fu Jun; Xiang, Yu-Tao Little is known about suicidality in Chinese men who has sex with men (MSM) infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This study investigated suicidality and its clinical correlates in Chinese MSM with HIV infection. Suicidality, demographic and clinical characteristics were assessed in 410 MSM with HIV infection consecutively recruited from a public HIV clinic in China. The prevalence of suicidality was 10.7% in Chinese HIV-infected MSM. Compared with those without suicidality, MSM with suicidality were more likely to be younger, unmarried and unemployed, and have more frequent insomnia, lower CD4 lymphocyte counts, and higher GAD-7 and CSE-D total scores. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that suicidality was independently associated with unemployment (p = 0.03, OR = 0.3, 95% CI = 0.1-0.9), age (p < 0.01, OR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.8-0.9), CD4 lymphocyte counts (p = 0.02, OR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.9-1.0), and the GAD-7 total score (p < 0.001, OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.1-1.5). Suicidality is common in Chinese MSM with HIV infection. There is an urgent need to develop comprehensive suicide prevention program and mental health services for this population. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Towards LGBTQ-affirmative cancer care and support: Barriers and opportunities
    Towards LGBTQ-affirmative cancer care and support: Barriers and opportunities Williamson, I. R.; Fish, Julie; Wildbur, D.; Bell, Katie; Padley, Wendy; Brown, Jayne Background: Survey data suggest that LGBT people report lower levels of satisfaction with healthcare for cancer than heterosexuals. This presentation summarises findings from recent qualitative research to understand the experiences of British LGBT people with cancer and their long-term partners. Methods: Participants were recruited through 5 oncology units at British hospitals, 2 cancer support charities and through media campaigns. In-depth interviews typically lasting between 45 and 75 minutes were carried out with 31 cancer patients who identified as lesbian (N=13), gay (N=14), bisexual (N= 3) and queer (N=1) and 9 long-term partners of cancer patients who identified as lesbian (N= 5), gay (N= 2) and trans* (N=2). Data were analysed through thematic analysis. Findings: Three themes are presented: Understanding the Motives, Meanings and ‘Mechanics’ of Disclosure explores how decisions around whether to ‘come out’ as LGBTQ are influenced by several factors including anticipated stigma, perceived moral or political ‘obligation’ and the manner of healthcare professionals. Creating and Communicating LGBTQ-Affirmative Spaces outlines anxieties faced by LGBTQ patients in interactions with staff and patients in clinical spaces such as waiting-rooms and hospital wards and the desire for more explicit evidencing of an anti-discriminatory culture. Finally Seeking LGBTQ-tailored Information and Support shows how current cancer support typically fails to meet psychosocial and psychosexual needs of LGBTQ patients. Discussion: The findings can be used to influence policy and practice by statutory and voluntary agencies to ensure that effective oncology treatment is accompanied by an holistic understanding of the needs and concerns of LGBTQ patients
  • Universality reconsidered: Diversity in making meaning of facial expressions
    Universality reconsidered: Diversity in making meaning of facial expressions Gendron, M.; Crivelli, Carlos; Barrett, L.F. It has long been claimed that certain facial movements are universally perceived as emotional expressions. The critical tests of this Universality Thesis (UT) were conducted between 1969 and 1975 in small-scale societies in the Pacific using confirmation-based research methods. New studies conducted since 2008 have examine a wider sample of small-scale societies, including on the African and South American continents. They used more discovery-based research methods, providing an important opportunity for reevaluating the universality thesis. These new studies reveal diversity, rather than uniformity, in how perceivers make sense of facial movements, calling the universality thesis into doubt. Instead, they support a perceiver-constructed account of emotion perception that is consistent with the broader literature on perception. open access article
  • The effect of subgroup homogeneity of efficacy on contribution in public good dilemmas
    The effect of subgroup homogeneity of efficacy on contribution in public good dilemmas Yam, Paton Pak Chun; Ng, Gary Ting Tat; Au, Wing Tung; Tao, Lin; Lu, Su; Leung, Hildie; Fung, Jane M. Y. This paper examines how to maximize contribution in public good dilemmas by arranging people into homogeneous or heterogeneous subgroups. Past studies on the effect of homo- geneity of efficacy have exclusively manipulated group composition in their experimental designs, which might have imposed a limit on ecological validity because group membership may not be easily changed in reality. In this study, we maintained the same group composi- tion but varied the subgroup composition. We developed a public good dilemmas paradigm in which participants were assigned to one of the four conditions (high- vs. low-efficacy; homogeneous vs. heterogeneous subgroup) to produce their endowments and then to decide how much to contribute. We found that individuals in homogeneous and heteroge- neous subgroups produced a similar amount and proportion of contribution, which was due to the two mediating effects that counteracted each other, namely (a) perceived efficacy rel- ative to subgroup and (b) expectation of contribution of other subgroup members. This paper demonstrates both the pros and cons of arranging people into homogeneous and het- erogeneous subgroups of efficacy. open access article
  • It was never an option not to breastfeed: Exploring breastfeeding experiences and intentions of multigravidae in Southern Nigeria
    It was never an option not to breastfeed: Exploring breastfeeding experiences and intentions of multigravidae in Southern Nigeria Ogbonna, M.; Williamson, I. R.; Mitchell, H. Exclusive breastfeeding rates are generally modest despite its benefits and pertinence in countries with high childhood morbidity and mortality. In order to understand the complexities of successfully promoting breastfeeding, qualitative research using postmodern research methodologies such as ethnography, grounded theory and interpretative phenomenological analysis, as well as feminist analysis have been employed to explore the experience of breastfeeding by the active participants of breastfeeding-mothers. However, there is a dearth of such studies in developing countries like Nigeria. This study explores accounts of breastfeeding provided by nine pregnant Nigerian women (28-33 years) who had previously breastfed. Participants wereinterviewed, and data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Analyses indicated three emergent themes which highlighted women’s experiences of breastfeeding as complex and shaped by proximal and distal influences. Accounts of pain, psychological distress and worries over ‘breast addiction’ were juxtaposed with pride in perceptions of good mothering, connectedness and upholding cultural heritage. Women’s feeding choices were scrutinised and/or stigmatised by family and community members. In the context of feminist ‘‘lens’’, major implication is the potential penalisation for not breastfeeding and hence, a contravention of the right of choice of infant feeding. There is therefore, the need for the incorporation of the right to choose infant feeding methods in breastfeeding campaigns; support for breastfeeding, particularly the inclusion of support for discontinuation; and similar research to explore specific aspects and perspectives on breastfeeding such as those of spouses, to further provide insights that may be useful for the improvement, adaptation and/or development of interventions The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the URI link. Open access article.
  • Evaluating connection to nature and the relationship with conservation behaviour in children
    Evaluating connection to nature and the relationship with conservation behaviour in children Hughes, Joelene; Richardson, Miles; Lumber, Ryan ‘Connection to nature’ is a multidimensional trait thought to be important for developing positive conservation behaviours, and strengthening people’s connection to nature has become the focus for many conservation activities. A connection to nature may be developed through repeated engagement with nature, and experiences during childhood are thought to be particularly significant. However, many children today are considered to have a low connection to nature, presenting a critical challenge for the future of nature conservation. Several instruments have been developed for measuring connection to nature. These instruments are important for establishing current levels and thresholds of connection and evaluating efforts to improve connection, yet the way the instruments and the derived scores relate to the term ‘connection’ frequently used in conservation discourse has, so far, been overlooked. In this study, we interrogate Cheng et al’s (2012) Connection to Nature Index (CNI) and develop a refined “gradient of connection” based on the instrument structure, proposing boundaries of low (below 4.06), mild (between 4.06 and 4.56) and strong (over 4.56) connection that are relevant for conservation activities. Furthermore, we show how the suggested boundaries relate to self-reported conservation behaviours with a high probability of performing behaviours (> 70%) only reached at strong levels of connection. Our data show that, in agreement with current perceptions, the population of UK children surveyed have a low connection to nature and are unlikely to be performing many conservation behaviours. This demonstrates how the index can be used to measure and evaluate connection in populations in a way that will enhance future conservation efforts. Work carried out in conjunction with the RSPB and the University of Derby The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Indirect effect of hopelessness on depression symptoms through perceived burdensomeness
    Indirect effect of hopelessness on depression symptoms through perceived burdensomeness Nalipay, M. J. N.; Ku, L. Hopelessness theory of depression posits that hopelessness due to negative inferences may serve as a proximal and sufficient cause of depression, while interpersonal theories suggest that interpersonal stress resulting from relationship problems and social rejection may lead to symptoms of depression. We propose that the two perspectives can be integrated by examining a model in which hopelessness predicts depression symptoms through two specific interpersonal stress constructs, thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, in a sample of university students from Macau (N¼350). Results of mediation analysis revealed a significant indirect effect of hopelessness on depression symptoms through perceived burdensomeness (indirect effect¼.45; 95% confidence interval¼.28 to .65), but not thwarted belongingness (indirect effect¼.06; 95% confidence interval¼ .05 to .18). Alternative models were also tested. When each interpersonal construct was treated as a separate mediator without controlling for the other, significant indirect effects of both perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness were found. Moreover, when hopelessness was assigned as the mediator and interpersonal constructs as independent variables, significant indirect effects were likewise found for perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. Findings suggest that the two different yet compatible views about depression—hopelessness and interpersonal theories— may be integrated to provide a better understanding of the process of how depression symptoms occur. It also reinforces the importance of considering interpersonal factors in the study of depression, especially in societies where interpersonal relationships are highly valued. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • “It's always on the safe list”: Investigating experiential accounts of picky eating in adults
    “It's always on the safe list”: Investigating experiential accounts of picky eating in adults Fox, G.; Coulthard, Helen; Williamson, I. R.; Wallis, D. J. Previous research into severely restricted eating for reasons which are not cultural, medical, due to a lack of food or due to concerns about body image has focused predominantly on “picky/fussy eating” in children. Despite evidence that picky eating does continue into adulthood and recognition in the new diagnostic category. Avoidant Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) that problematically avoidant and restrictive patterns of eating affect people across the lifespan, relatively little is known about the challenges and consequences faced by older adolescents and adults. This research employs qualitative methods to explore the experience of living as an adult with picky eating behaviours. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with thirteen adults who identify as picky eaters and eat a highly limited diet, as determined by a checklist food questionnaire. Data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Two themes are presented in this paper: “Constructions of food” and “Motivators for and barriers to change”. These themes show the importance of how individuals perceive food, their diet and themselves, and implications for clinical practice and future research in light of these findings are considered. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • There’s this glorious pill’: Gay and bisexual men in the English Midlands navigate risk responsibility and Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis
    There’s this glorious pill’: Gay and bisexual men in the English Midlands navigate risk responsibility and Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Williamson, I. R.; Papaloukas, P.; Jaspal, Rusi; Lond, B Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is currently being trialed for seronegative gay and other men who have sex with men (GMSM) at risk of HIV infection in England. However, research from other countries where PrEP is available shows limited literacy and uptake by GMSM at risk of HIV. We collected focus group data from 18 GMSM (13 HIV− and 5 HIV+) from Leicester, an ethnically diverse city in the English Midlands. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and three themes are presented. The first theme ‘I can’t get my head around people like that’: Representations of PrEP users within and beyond gay communities explores how PrEP users are vilified by some GMSM and the wider media. The second theme, ‘There’s a culture of anti-trust’: PrEP, stigma and the interpersonal politics of HIV disclosure discusses how PrEP influences HIV disclosure and sexual decision-making in casual sero-discordant sexual encounters in a context where seropositive men experienced pervasive HIV stigma and HIV− men were suspicious of HIV+ sexual partners. In the final theme, ‘I’m still suspicious’: Discourses of doubt and distrust participants voiced concern over the safety of PrEP and the motives of drug companies, healthcare agencies and PrEP activists. We consider these findings through a critical lens of wider theorising around the relationship between public health agencies and GMSM communities and consider the impact of these perspectives on likely engagement with PrEP in an English context. We call for more critically informed and nuanced ways of promoting health and well-being amongst men from these communities
  • Walking through doorways differentially affects recall and familiarity.
    Walking through doorways differentially affects recall and familiarity. Seel, Sabrina; Easton, Alex; McGregor, Anthony; Buckley, Matthew G.; Eacott, Madeline J.
  • Observation and comparison of mealtime behaviours in a sample of children with avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder and a control sample of children with typical development
    Observation and comparison of mealtime behaviours in a sample of children with avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder and a control sample of children with typical development Aldridge, V. K.; Dovey, T. M.; El-Hawi, N.; Martiniuc, A.; Martin, C. I.; Meyer, Caroline Objectives: Despite widespread use of behavioural observations to evaluate child feeding behaviours in research and clinical practice, few studies have comprehensively characterised mealtimes or identified features that differentiate children with and without disordered feeding; these were the aims of the current study. Methods: Mealtime observations were conducted for 18 children with Avoidant Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) and 21 typically developing children. Observations were coded inductively, and associations between disorder and observed mealtime actions were examined. Results: Most behaviours were observed across both clinical and non-clinical mealtimes, and many did not differ in frequency between children with and without ARFID. However, significant group differences were observed in the frequencies of behaviours relating to food intake, visual and physical engagement with feeding, and movement during mealtimes. Conclusions: The comparability of behaviours across clinical and non-clinical groups suggests that eating behaviours exist on a continuum from ‘normal’ to ‘abnormal’, with group differences relating to frequency rather than type of behaviour. The behavioural differences observed in this study suggest that identification of children with ARFID should focus on child engagement with food and restlessness during mealtimes. Reliance on emotional and escape-maintained behaviours will lead to under-recognition of families in need of clinical support. The file attached to this record is the author's pre- peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Why aren’t you stopping now?!’ Exploring accounts of white women breastfeeding beyond six months in the East of England
    Why aren’t you stopping now?!’ Exploring accounts of white women breastfeeding beyond six months in the East of England Newman, Kristina; Williamson, I. R. Breastfeeding infants for a period of two years is endorsed by international health agencies such as the World Health Organisation. However, discourses of breastfeeding in a British context are complex and contradictory, juxtaposing representations of breastfeeding as healthy and a moral obligation for mothers with views of the act as unseemly and an expectation that nursing women practice ‘socially sensitive lactation’ especially in public spaces. Sustained breastfeeding rates in the UK are poor and most British women discontinue breastfeeding well before six months. Mothers who elect to feed their infants at the breast for longer than these normative periods appear to experience suspicion and disapproval, especially in a public context and breastfeeding women are only legally protected in feeding their infants in public for up to six months. Although breastfeeding research is flourishing, research on this particular population of mothers remains relatively limited. Therefore, in this study, we explore in-depth experiential accounts of eight women, resident in a town in the East of England, who breastfed their infants beyond six months. Using interpretative phenomenological analysis four themes are presented. Really horrible looks’: stigma from families and the community’, ‘Feeling quite exposed’: managing extended breastfeeding etiquette’, ‘Weird freaky paedophiles’: representations of extended breastfeeding women in the media’ and ‘You really need that’: the importance of support for longer-term breastfeeding women’. Applications to extended breastfeeding promotion and advocacy are discussed The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Materialistic values, brand knowledge and the mass media: Hours spent on the Internet predicts materialistic values and brand knowledge
    Materialistic values, brand knowledge and the mass media: Hours spent on the Internet predicts materialistic values and brand knowledge Rai, Roshan; Chauhan, C.; Cheng, M. Materialism can be seen as the importance people attached to material goods, as well as the belief in the desirable symbolic importance goods have (e.g., to status, human happiness etc.). And the media has often been associated with materialistic values. The current study investigates the relationship between some traditional forms of mass media (television, newspapers and magazines), and a newer form of mass media: the Internet. Using self-report measures, 195 participants indicated how many hours a day they spent watching television, reading newspapers/magazines, and using the Internet. It was found that hours spent using the Internet was positively associated with materialistic values as measured by the Aspiration Index. Using a more concrete task, hours spent using the Internet and materialistic values were significantly predictors of participants’ ability to identify brand logos. This provides evidence that materialistic values, as well as specific knowledge of brands, can be associated to Internet usage. Perhaps surprisingly, however, television viewing was negatively associated with materialistic values. In the current research, the Internet (a newer form of mass media) was more strongly associated with greater materialistic values and the ability to identify brand logos than older forms of mass media. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Music listening as a potential aid in reducing emotional eating: An exploratory study
    Music listening as a potential aid in reducing emotional eating: An exploratory study Van den Tol, Annemieke, J. M.; Coulthard, Helen; Hanser, W. E. Emotional Eating (EE) is understood as a maladaptive self-regulation strategy to satisfy emotional needs instead of hunger. Consequently, EE has been associated with negative health consequences. Enjoyment of food and music share similar neural activations in the brain and are both used by people for regulating affect. This suggests that music listening could potentially be a healthier alternative to EE. The present study was designed to investigate associations between EE, disordered mood, and music-related mood regulation. A total of 571 participants completed measures of EE, music listening strategies, and disordered mood. Associations between seven different music listening strategies and EE were examined, and also whether these regulation strategies were associated with depression, anxiety, and stress. Finally, we explored associations between music listening and EE in people with low and high (non-clinical) levels of disordered mood (depression, anxiety, and stress). The findings of this research indicated that music listening for discharge (releasing anger or sadness through music that expresses these same emotions) and EE were positively associated with one another. In addition, EE and the music listening strategies of entertainment, diversion or mental work were associated in people with low levels of disordered mood. When disordered mood was high, EE was higher, but was not associated with music listening strategies. These associations point towards the possibility of some music listening strategies being useful as healthier alternatives for EE. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • A rejoinder to Kret and Straffon
    A rejoinder to Kret and Straffon Jarillo, Sergio; Fridlund, Alan J.; Crivelli, Carlos; Fernández-Dols, José-Miguel; Russell, James A. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Employees Attitudes towards Cyber Security and Risky Online Behaviours: An Empirical Assessment in the United Kingdom
    Employees Attitudes towards Cyber Security and Risky Online Behaviours: An Empirical Assessment in the United Kingdom Hadlington, L. J. The present study aimed to explore if the size of company an individual works for, age or attitudes towards cyber security affected frequency to engage in risky online behaviours. A total of 515 participants aged between 18-84 in full or part-time employment were asked to complete a questionnaire that consisted of two scales. One measured their attitude towards cyber security and general awareness of cyber crime, the other examined the types of ‘risky’ cyber security behaviours they were engaged in. The results demonstrated a significant negative correlation between attitudes towards cyber security and risky cyber security behaviours, with more negative attitudes being linked to higher levels of risky behaviours. There were also significant differences according to company size and age group according to frequency of engaging in risky cyber security behaviour and attitudes towards cyber security. The findings are presented as furthering our understanding of how employee attitudes contribute to company cyber security, as well as highlighting how the size of an organisation could be linked to difference in knowledge and adherence to ISA protocols.
  • Interactive Audio Tactile Maps for Pre-Navigation Improve Spatial Learning in Visually Impaired People.
    Interactive Audio Tactile Maps for Pre-Navigation Improve Spatial Learning in Visually Impaired People. Scase, M. O.; Griffin, Edward; Picinali, Lorenzo Pre-navigational tools can assist visually impaired people when navigating unfamiliar environments. We assessed the effectiveness of an interactive audio-tactile-map (ATM) in blind and visually impaired people. We found that participants exposed to an ATM recalled the map significantly better than those given a conventional tactile map accompanied by text description.
  • Do you know how to use a condom? – UK nurse practitioners’ conversation about men and family planning
    Do you know how to use a condom? – UK nurse practitioners’ conversation about men and family planning Wilson, Amanda D. Introduction: Health professionals have been identified as central to encouraging men to take an active part in family planning. The aim of this article is to understand nurse practitioners’ conversations about men as family planning patients. Methods: One-to-one, semi-structured interviews were conducted with five nurse practitioners. Nurses interviewed worked in a northern UK student medical practice serving over 34,000 students with a diverse range of ages and demographic backgrounds (both home and overseas students). The research method was qualitative using discourse analysis. Results: After completing the analysis, two discourses emerged. Discourse one, family planning services are culturally female centric, and discourse two, condom use by male family planning patients is problematic. Discussion: Implications for how nurse practitioners can continue to play an important part when providing care to male family planning patients is discussed, specifically in relation to culture and condom efficacy. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • User Reactions to Failures and Frustrations within Cyber Environments – Systematic Coding of Previous Work (URM Coding)
    User Reactions to Failures and Frustrations within Cyber Environments – Systematic Coding of Previous Work (URM Coding) Scase, M. O.; Hadlington, L. J.; Rai, Roshan
  • The neural correlates of economic value and valuation context: An event-related potentials study
    The neural correlates of economic value and valuation context: An event-related potentials study Tyson-Carr, J.; Kokmotou, K.; Soto, V.; Cook, Stephanie; Fallon, N.; Giesbrecht, T.; Stancak, A. The value of environmental cues and internal states is continuously evaluated by the human brain, and it is this subjective value that largely guides decision making. The present study aimed to investigate the initial value attribution process, specifically the spatiotemporal activation patterns associated with values and valuation context, using electroencephalographic event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants completed a stimulus rating task in which everyday household items marketed up to a price of £4 were evaluated with respect to their desirability or material properties. The subjective values of items were evaluated as willingness to pay (WTP) in a Becker-DeGroot-Marschak auction. On the basis of the individual’s subjective WTP values, the stimuli were divided into high- and low-value items. Source dipole modeling was applied to estimate the cortical sources underlying ERP components modulated by subjective values (high vs. low WTP) and the evaluation condition (valuerelevant vs. value-irrelevant judgments). Low-WTP items and valuerelevant judgments both led to a more pronounced N2 visual evoked potential at right frontal scalp electrodes. Source activity in right anterior insula and left orbitofrontal cortex was larger for low vs. high WTP at 200 ms. At a similar latency, source activity in right anterior insula and right parahippocampal gyrus was larger for value-relevant vs. value-irrelevant judgments. A stronger response for low- than high-value items in anterior insula and orbitofrontal cortex appears to reflect aversion to low-valued item acquisition, which in an auction experiment would be perceived as a relative loss. This initial lowvalue bias occurs automatically irrespective of the valuation context. open access article
  • Review of mental health promotion interventions in schools
    Review of mental health promotion interventions in schools O'Reilly, Michelle; Adams, Sarah; Svirydzenka, N.; Dogra, N. Purpose The prevalence of mental disorders amongst children and adolescents is an increasing global problem. Schools have been positioned at the forefront of promoting positive mental health and well-being through implementing evidence-based interventions. The aim of this paper is to review current evidence-based research of mental health promotion interventions in schools and examine the reported effectiveness to identify those interventions that can support current policy and ensure that limited resources are appropriately used. Methods The authors reviewed the current state of knowledge on school mental health promotion interventions globally. Two major databases, SCOPUS and ERIC were utilised to capture the social science, health, arts and humanities, and edu- cation literature. Results Initial searches identified 25 articles reporting on mental health promotion interventions in schools. When mapped against the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 10 studies were included and explored. Three of these were qualitative and seven were quantitative. Conclusions A range of interventions have been tested for mental health promotion in schools in the last decade with vari- able degrees of success. Our review demonstrates that there is still a need for a stronger and broader evidence base in the field of mental health promotion, which should focus on both universal work and targeted approaches to fully address mental health in our young populations. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. Open access article
  • Associations between Sleep and Emotion Regulation in Isolated, Confined, and Extreme Environments.
    Associations between Sleep and Emotion Regulation in Isolated, Confined, and Extreme Environments. Bower, Joanne L.; Laughlin, M. S.; Connaboy, C.; Simpson, R. J.; Alfano, Candice A. Abstract Introduction Understanding interactions between sleep and emotion in isolated, confined, extreme environments (ICEs) is relevant to multiple populations (e.g., military personnel, off-shore workers, astronauts). Little is known about risk and resilience factors affecting sleep in these environments; however conditions (e.g., loss of natural light, communication delays) are conducive to sleep, circadian, and emotional disturbances. This study assesses sleep, neurobehavioral and emotion regulation factors in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA), a highly controlled, 3-story analog, simulating human exploration into space. Methods Sixteen participants (9 male) aged 29–52 (M=36.38, SD=7.11) completed a 30-day mission in HERA. Actigraphy data was collected continuously, including 11 days pre-mission. Subjective sleep complaints (Sleep Self-Assessment Scale; pre-mission, mission day 7 (D7), and D14), neurobehavioral symptoms (Neurobehavioral Checklist [NBCL]; pre-mission, D4, D11, D18), and pre-mission emotion regulation (including Anxiety Sensitivity Index and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale) were also measured. Analyses included data from D0-D24, after which a sleep manipulation occurred. Results Pre-mission, positive adaptation was negatively associated with subjective sleep complaints (rt= -.47, p=.02). Variability in total sleep time (TST) was negatively associated with emotion regulation difficulties (rt= -.494, p=.02) and poor self-regulation (rt=-.55, p=.02), whilst individuals with higher anxiety sensitivity showed increased sleep percentage (rt=.45, p=.04) and decreased wake after sleep onset (rt= -.43, p=.05). During mission, TST increased, with a significant overall change from pre-mission to D18 (F(2.26, 27.16)=8.91, p=.001, η2partial=.45). Early in the mission (D1-D4), subjective sleep complaints were positively associated with poor self-regulation (rt=.56, p=.005). During D1-D4, sleep onset latency (SOL) was negatively associated with anxious apprehension (rt=-.46, p=.02) and marginally associated with poor self-regulation (rt=-.31, p=.11). In subsequent mission days (D4-D11 and D11-18) the negative association between poor self-regulation and SOL was maintained (rt=-.47, p=.02 and rt=-.47, p=.01 respectively). Conclusion Associations identified between emotional functioning and sleep provide potential indicators of individual risk and resilience patterns within ICEs. Such findings await replication in larger samples and across different environmental conditions. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
 
Events target area image
Events

At DMU there is always something to do or see, check out our events for yourself.

DMU research news target area image
DMU research news

Read about our latest research efforts.

Mission and vision target area image
Mission and vision

Read about our mission and vision and how these create a supportive and exciting learning environment.