Dr Ali Hilal Al-Bayatti

Job: Associate Professor in Cyber Security

Faculty: Technology

School/department: School of Computer Science and Informatics

Research group(s): Cyber Technology Institute (CTI) (Software Technology Research Laboratory (STRL))

Address: De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester, LE1 9BH, United Kingdom

T: +44 (0)116 207 8586

E: alihmohd@dmu.ac.uk

W: http://www.tech.dmu.ac.uk/~alihmohd/


Personal profile

Dr. Ali Al-Bayatti is a Senior Lecturer in Intelligent Transportation systems at Software Technology Research Laboratory, a research institute established within De Montfort University, Leicester, UK. , his research deals with vehicular (e.g. Vehicular Ad hoc Networks), Cyber Security (e.g. Security Management) and smart technologies (e.g. Context-aware Systems) that promote collective intelligence. Applications range from promoting comfort, to enabling safety in critical scenarios. The goal of his research is to improve the effectiveness, efficiency, mobility, security and safety of transportationsystems.

Dr. Ali Al-Bayatti is currently teaching Undergraduate module ‘CTEC3604 Multi-service Networks’ in Computer Science. He is currently the programme leader for MSc Cyber Technology, MSc Software Engineering, MSc Cyber Security and MSc Professional Practice in Digital Forensics and Security.

Publications and outputs 

  • AlphaLogger: Detecting Motion-based Side-Channel Attack Using Smartphone Keystrokes
    AlphaLogger: Detecting Motion-based Side-Channel Attack Using Smartphone Keystrokes Javed, A.R.; Baker, T.; Asim, M.; Beg, M.O.; Al-Bayatti, Ali Hilal Due to the advancement in technologies and excessive usability of smartphones in various domains (e.g., mobile banking), smartphones became more prone to malicious attacks.Typing on the soft keyboard of a smartphone produces different vibrations, which can be abused to recognize the keys being pressed, hence, facilitating side-channel attacks. In this work, we develop and evaluate AlphaLogger - an Android-based application that infers the alphabet keys being typed on a soft keyboard. AlphaLogger runs in the background and collects data at a frequency of 10Hz/sec from the smartphone hardware sensors (accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer ) to accurately infer the keystrokes being typed on the soft keyboard of all other applications running in the foreground. We show a performance analysis of the different combinations of sensors. A thorough evaluation demonstrates that keystrokes can be inferred with an accuracy of 90.2% using accelerometer, gyroscope, and magnetometer. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version
  • Limitations of HIL Test Architectures for Car2X Communication Devices and Applications
    Limitations of HIL Test Architectures for Car2X Communication Devices and Applications Al-Bayatti, Ali Hilal; Obermaier, Christina; Khan, Sarmadullah; Facchi, Christian; Riebl, Raphael
  • Context-Aware Driver Distraction Severity  Classification using LSTM Network
    Context-Aware Driver Distraction Severity  Classification using LSTM Network Fasanmade, Adebamigbe; Aliyu, Suleiman; He, Ying; Sharif, Mhd Saeed; Alfakeeh, Ahmed; Al-Bayatti, Ali Hilal
  • Secure Communication Architecture for Dynamic Energy Management in Smart Grid
    Secure Communication Architecture for Dynamic Energy Management in Smart Grid Khan, Sarmadullah; Khan, Rafiullah; Al-Bayatti, Ali Hilal Smart grid takes advantage of communication technologies for efficient energy management and utilization. It entails sacrifice from consumers in terms of reducing load during peak hours by using a dynamic energy pricing model. To enable an active participation of consumers in load management, the concept of home energy gateway (HEG) has recently been proposed in the literature. However, the HEG concept is rather new, and the literature still lacks to address challenges related to data representation, seamless discovery, interoperability, security, and privacy. This paper presents the design of a communication framework that effectively copes with the interoperability and integration challenges between devices from different manufacturers. The proposed communication framework offers seamless auto-discovery and zero- con figuration-based networking between heterogeneous devices at consumer sites. It uses elliptic-curve-based security mechanism for protecting consumers' privacy and providing the best possible shield against different types of cyberattacks. Experiments in real networking environment validated that the proposed communication framework is lightweight, secure, portable with low-bandwidth requirement, and flexible to be adopted for dynamic energy management in smart grid. open access article
  • Context-aware system for pre-triggering irreversible vehicle safety actuators
    Context-aware system for pre-triggering irreversible vehicle safety actuators Bohmlander, Dennis; Dirndorfer, Tobias; Al-Bayatti, Ali Hilal; Brandmeier, Thomas New vehicle safety systems have led to a steady improvement of road safety and a reduction in the risk of suffering a major injury in vehicle accidents. A huge leap forward in the development of new vehicle safety systems are actuators that have to be activated irreversibly shortly before a collision in order to mitigate accident consequences. The triggering decision has to be based on measurements of exteroceptive sensors currently used in driver assistance systems. This paper focuses on developing a novel context-aware system designed to detect potential collisions and to trigger safety actuators even before an accident occurs. In this context, the analysis examines the information that can be collected from exteroceptive sensors (pre-crash data) to predict a certain collision and its severity to decide whether a triggering is entitled or not. A five-layer context-aware architecture is presented, that is able to collect contextual information about the vehicle environment and the actual driving state using different sensors, to perform reasoning about potential collisions, and to trigger safety functions upon that information. Accident analysis is used in a data model to represent uncertain knowledge and to perform reasoning. A simulation concept based on real accident data is introduced to evaluate the presented system concept. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Cooperative Volunteer Protocol to Detect Non-Line of Sight Nodes in Vehicular Ad hoc Networks
    Cooperative Volunteer Protocol to Detect Non-Line of Sight Nodes in Vehicular Ad hoc Networks Alodadi, Khaled; Al-Bayatti, Ali Hilal; Alalwan, Nasser Alwan A vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET) is a special type of Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) application that impacts wireless communications and Intelligent Transport Systems (ITSs). VANETs are employed to develop safety applications for vehicles to create a safer and less cluttered environment on the road. The many remaining challenges relating to VANETs have encouraged researchers to conduct further investigation in this field to meet these challenges. For example, issues pertaining to routing protocols, such as the delivery of warning messages to vehicles facing Non-Line of Sight (NLOS) situations without causing a broadcasting storm and channel contention are regarded as a serious dilemma, especially in congested environments. This prompted the design of an efficient mechanism for a routing protocol capable of broadcasting warning messages from emergency vehicles to vehicles under NLOS conditions to reduce the overhead and increase the packet delivery ratio with reduced time delay and channel utilisation. This work used the cooperative approach to develop the routing protocol named the Co-operative Volunteer Protocol (CVP), which uses volunteer vehicles to disseminate the warning message from the source to the target vehicle experiencing an NLOS situation. A novel architecture has been developed by utilising the concept of a Context-Aware System (CAS), which clarifies the OBU components and their interaction with each other to collect data and make decisions based on the sensed circumstances. The simulation results showed that the proposed protocol outperformed the GRANT protocol with regard to several metrics such as packet delivery ratio, neighbourhood awareness, channel utilisation, overhead, and latency. The results also showed that the proposed CVP could successfully detect NLOS situations and solve them effectively and efficiently for both the intersection scenario in urban areas and the highway scenario. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. CTI
  • Enhanced Inter-Vehicular relative positioning
    Enhanced Inter-Vehicular relative positioning Speth, T.; Riebl, Raphael; Brandmeier, T.; Facchi, Christian; Al-Bayatti, Ali Hilal; Jumar, U. Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) applications for integral and cooperative vehicle safety as well as some Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADASs) benefit from precise determination of relative positions between dynamic traffic objects. With conventional Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) measurements, e.g. using Global Positioning System (GPS), the required accuracy cannot be achieved. For this reason, an exchange of GNSS observations via Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET) is proposed in this paper. In particular, the European Inter-Vehicle Communication (IVC) protocol stack ITS-G5 is employed. With these exchanged GNSS observations, Differential GNSS (DGNSS) or Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) calculations provide a precise relative position vector. However, due to relative movement of traffic objects, this position vector becomes obsolete for increasing transmission delays. For this reason, a mitigating kinematic model is set up and validated experimentally. With respect to fixed RTK solutions, this kinematic model reduces the errors by an average of 61% compared to position calculations ignoring IVC latency. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Improved Security Performance for VANET Simulations
    Improved Security Performance for VANET Simulations Riebl, Raphael; Monz, Markus; Varga , Simon; Janicke, Helge; Maglaras, Leandros; Al-Bayatti, Ali Hilal; Facchi, Christian Upcoming deployments of Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) in Europe are expected to sign and verify packets secured by cryptographic signatures by default. Thus, when VANET simulations are used for development and test of applications building upon vehicular communication, the overhead induced by security extensions to the ITS-G5 protocol stack shall not be neglected. This paper presents a standard compliant simulation model capable to handle secured messages. Beside its suitability for Hardware-in-the-Loop simulations employing secured communication, the model's major advantage is the minimisation of the simulation environment's performance penalty linked with cryptographic computations. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • VANET Coverage Analysis for GPS Augmentation Data in Rural Area
    VANET Coverage Analysis for GPS Augmentation Data in Rural Area Speth, T.; Riebl, R.; Brandmeier, T.; Facchi, Christian; Jumar, U.; Al-Bayatti, Ali Hilal Enhanced position accuracy is key for modern navigation systems, location based services and applications based on Inter-Vehicle Communication (IVC). Position data are the foundation for deriving vehicle trajectories used for assessing a situation's criticality in vehicle safety. Thus, especially Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADASs) and integral safety applications bene t from nearby vehicles spreading their positions periodically with high accuracy. Positioning based on Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) measurements can be enhanced by established Cooperative Positioning (CP) methods like Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) and Di fferential GNSS (DGNSS). Conventional CP relies on positioning correction data from a third party, whereas this paper introduces a self-su fficient CP system based on Precise Point Positioning (PPP) and Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET) technology requiring no infrastructure. Furthermore, the data dissemination process and achievable coverage are analysed by a simulation study for a rural area in Bavaria, Germany. For this purpose, the simulation employs the European IVC protocol stack ITS-G5. While the general feasibility of this CP approach could be assured, some remaining issues regarding employed network protocols were discovered as well. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Context-aware GPS integrity monitoring for intelligent transport systems
    Context-aware GPS integrity monitoring for intelligent transport systems Binjammaz, Tareq; Al-Bayatti, Ali Hilal; Al-Hargan, A. H. The integrity of positioning systems has become an increasingly important requirement for location-based intelligent transport systems (ITS), for example electronic toll collection (ETC), public transport operations and traffic control services. In ITS, satellite navigation systems, such as global positioning system (GPS), are used to provide real-time vehicle positioning information including details of longitude, latitude, direction and speed. Map matching algorithms are used to integrate the positioning information into the digital road map. However, the navigation systems used in ITS cannot provide the high quality positioning information required by most services, due to the various types of errors made in the map matching process and experienced by GPS sensors such as signal outage, and errors due to atmospheric effects and receiver measurement errors, all of which are difficult to measure. An error in the positioning information or map matching process might lead to the inaccurate determination of a vehicle location. This could have legal or economic consequences for ITS applications such as traffic law enforcement systems (e.g., speed fining). Such applications require integrity when measuring the vehicle position and speed information and in the map matching process when locating the vehicle on the correct road segment to avoid errors when charging drivers. Consequently, the integrity algorithm for the navigation system should include a guarantee that the systems do not produce misleading or faulty information as this may lead to significant errors in the ITS services provided. In this paper, a high integrity GPS monitoring algorithm based on the concept of context-awareness that can be applied with real time ITS services to integrate changes in the integrity status of the navigation system was developed. Results suggest that the new integrity algorithm can support various types of location-based ITS services (e.g., route guidance). The full text of this article can be viewed via Open Access on the publishers website.

View all Ali Hilal Al-Bayati's publications and outputs

Key research outputs


Research interests/expertise

  • Intelligent transpiration
  • Vehicular Ad hoc Networks
  • Mobile Computing
  • Wireless Computing
  • Context-aware Systems
  • Pervasive Computing
  • Computer/Mobile Security.

Areas of teaching

CTEC3604 Multi-service Networks (30 credit).


B.Sc. in Computer Engineering and Information Technology at the University of Technology, Iraq.

Ph.D. in Computer Science at De Montfort University, UK.  

Courses taught

Programme leader for MSc Cyber Technology, MSc Software Engineering, MSc Cyber Security and MSc Professional Practice in Digital Forensics and Security.

Current research students

Successful PhD Completion 

Dr. Khalid Alodadi “Solving Non-Line of Sight using Context-aware Systems in Vehicle Ad Hoc Networks” De Montfort University (2016). 

Dr. Ahmed Alghamdi “Features interaction: detection and resolution in Smart Homes Systems” De Montfort University (2016).

Dr. Tareq Binjammaz “GPS Integrity Monitoring for an Intelligent Transport System“ De Montfort University (2015). 

Dr. Abdullah Aldawsari “Context-aware Driving Behaviour Detection System in Vehicle Ad Hoc Networks“ De Montfort University (2015).

Dr. Yasser Almajed “Privacy Management in Data Warehousing” De Montfort University (2015). Dr. Fahad Alqahtani “E-commerce Customer Anonymity and Fair Exchange Protocol for Digital Contents” De Montfort University (2015). 

Dr. Abdulmalik Alhammad “Intelligent Parking Systems in Vehicle Ad Hoc Networks” De Montfort University (2015).

Dr. Hani Alquhayz “Security Management System for 4G Heterogenous Networks“ De Montfort University (2015).

Dr. Mussab Aswad “Crash Detection Model Using Dynamic Bayesian Networks” De Montfort University (2014). 

Dr. Mafawez Alharbi “Context-aware PLE Architecture”, De Montfort University (2014). 

Dr. Laila Alhimale “Fall Detection Algorithm for Video Images”, De Montfort University (2013).

Dr. Saif Al-Sultan “Context Aware Driving Behaviour Model for VANET”, De Montfort University (2013). 

Dr. Awatef Rahuma “Semantically Enhanced Image Tagging System”, De Montfort University (2013).

Dr. Moath Al-Doori “Directional Routing Technique in Vehicle Ad hoc Networks, De Montfort University (2011). 

Dr. Muhammed Khan “A Co-Evolutionary Framework to Reducing the Gap between and Information Technology (2011).

Current PhD Students (Main Supervisor) 

Mr. Dennis Bohmlander "Innovative Crash-sensing Architectures - A new approach in contactless vehicle crash detection" De Montfort University. 

Mr. Raphael Riebl "Perfomance Testing methodology for Vehicle Ad hoc Networks" De Montfort University.

Mr. Sadir Fadhil "Context-aware overtaking assistant system. De Montfort University.

Mr. Nawaf Alqabandi “Context-aware Intrusion Detection system using Artificial intelligence in VANET” De Montfort University.


Successful MSc Completion 

Mr. Shadman Salah (2014). 

Mr. Ahmed Malik (2013) “Factors effecting Delivering Insulin for diabetic patients using Bayesian Networks”

Mr. Anjanna Silva (2013) “Car Polling System”

Mr. Anas Alsharif (2012) “Automated Taxi Dispatch System (Taxi Business) De Montfort University.

Mr. Mahran Alsubee (2012) “Intelligent Car Parking System - A case of City of Medina, Saudi Arabia” De Montfort University.

Mr. Salman Alenezi (2012) “The Lines Between Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality” De Montfort University. 

Mr. Uqonna Ekwueme (2011)“Intelligent Car Parking Schemes” De Montfort University.

Mrs. Nada Al-Fakih (2011) “Cloud Based Personal Health Record” De Montfort University.

Mrs. Entisar Alshirf (2011) “Selection of Computer Programming Languages for Developing Distributed Systems. De Montfort University.

Mrs. Ohud Almutairi (2011) “Designing an Effective Intersection Collision Warning System: An Investigation into Important Criteria” De Montfort University. 

Mrs. Ruqayah Aljameel (2011) “The Application’s Usability Evaluation of Web-based Geographic Information System for Pst Office Webs” De Montfort University. 

Mr. Khalid Shaban (2011) “Evaluating Mobile Application Performance and Power Consumption Trough Model-Driven Engineering Methodology” De Montfort University.

Mrs. Laila Elgamel (2011) “ Selection of Programming Languages for Developing Distributed Systems” De Montfort University.

Mr. Ahmed Alghamdi (2010) “Feasibility of Separating Control/Data in 802.11 Family” De Montfort University. 

Mr. Mafawez Alharbi (2010) “Mobile Lecture” De Montfort University. 

Mr. Abdulkariem Alqarni (2010) “Global Intelligent Parking Schemes” De Montfort University. 

Mr. Abdullah Algashami (2010) “Good Practice for Effective E-assessment” De Montfort University. 

Mr. Sharaf Alzhrani (2010) “Intelligent Application for Car Hiring (Mileage Tracking Application)” De Montfort University.

Mr. Anas Alsharif (2010) “Automated Taxi Dispatch System” De Montfort University. 

Mrs. Asma Alothaim (2010) “Location Finder and Weather Forecast Application” De Montfort University. 

Mr. Fauwaz Alshammari “Risk Management in Software Development Projects” De Montfort University.

Mr. Ali Almiman “Security Survey in VoIP” De Montfort University. Mr. Thamir Alghamdi “Comparison of Two Parking Management Systems” De Montfort University.

Professional esteem indicators

Journal Article Reviewing
Networking [IET] 2016. Vehicular Communications [Elsevier] 2014, 2015, 2016. Sensors [MDPI] 2016. Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering [Springer] 2014, 2015. The Journal of Engineering [IET] 2014, 2015; Journal of Advances in Engineering Software [Elsevier]; Journal of Network & Computer Applications 2013 [Elsevier]; Computer & Electrical Engineering Journal (CEE) 2011, 2012 [Elsevier]; International Journal of Ad Hoc Ubiquitous Computing (IJAHUC) 2010

Program Committee Member / Other Conference & Workshop Reviewing
IEEE 83rd Vehicular Technology Conference: VTC2016-Spring 15–18 May 2016, Nanjing, ChinaIEEE Vehicular Technology Conference: VTC2015-Spring 11–14 May 2015, Glasgow, ScotlandInternational Conference on Computer, Communications, and Control Technology (I4CT) 2014Springer based Applied Electromagnetic International Conference (APPEIC) 2014Renewable Energy and Green Technology International Conference (REEGETECH) 2014International Symposium on Technology Management and Emerging Technologies (ISTMET) 2014International Conference on Communication and Computer Engineering, focusing on Industrial and Manufacturing Theory and Applications of Electronics, Communications, Computing, and Information Technology (ICOCOE) 2014IEEE Symposium on Computer Application & Industrial Electronics (ISCAIE) 2013IEEE International RF and Microwave Conference (RFM) 2013IEEE Symposium on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ISIEA) 2013IEEE Conference on Wireless Sensors (ICWiSE) 2013IEEE Symposium on Computer & Informatics (ISCI) 2013IEEE Asia-Pacific Conference on Applied Electromagnetic (APACE ) 2012IEEE Symposium on Wireless Technology & Applications (ISWTA) 2012, 2013IEEE Symposium on Industrial Electronic & Applications (ISIEA ) 2012ICNS Networking and Services 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014International Symposium on Innovation in Information & Communication Technology (ISIICT) 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014International Conference on Computer Science & Information Technology (ICCSIT) 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 International Symposium on Wireless Pervasive Computing (ISWPC) 2010 Member of the Steering committee of the International Online Workshop on writing a research paper (IOW-WRP) 2011AIRCC Worldwide Conferences


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