Professor Joan Taylor

Job: Professor of Pharmaceutics

Faculty: Health and Life Sciences

School/department: Leicester School of Pharmacy

Address: De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester, LE1 9BH.

T: +44 (0)116 250 6317

E: mjt@dmu.ac.uk

W: www.dmu.ac.uk/diabetes

 

Research group affiliations

  • Pharmaceutical Technologies
  • INsmart group

Publications and outputs 

  • What effect does 6 weeks of moderate-intensity combined aerobic and resistance exercise have on the inflammatory nature of prediabetes subject?
    What effect does 6 weeks of moderate-intensity combined aerobic and resistance exercise have on the inflammatory nature of prediabetes subject? Al Harby, Bandar Manawer; Taylor, M. Joan; Sahota, T. S. Introduction: Type-2 diabetes is a long-term metabolic disorder that considered as a disease of adulthood. It is often progression in different phases from normoglycemia phase to pre-diabetes phase and then incident T2D. In additions immune response involved in each phase of type-2 diabetes (T2D) development consider to be different. Physical exercise known to be effective strategy as primary prevention mechanism for people whom at risk to develop diabetes. However, the extent to which exercise has effect on the nature of immune response during pre-diabetes phase not fully understood. Purpose: The aim is to investigate what effect 6 weeks of moderate-intensity combined aerobic and resistance exercise has on the inflammatory nature of pre-diabetes subjects. Methods: Three groups of volunteers were involved in this study: ND, PRE-d and control. The ND and PRE-D volunteers participated in the main exercise trial which was a combined exercise session involving stretches, warm up on the bike for 10 min followed by 35 min of RE at 50-60% of 1RM. After RE they had 5 min of rest followed by 20 min of AE (cycling) at 50-60% of HRR and finally 10 min cooling down involves stretches. The exercise program involved 2 sessions (48 hours apart) for a total of 150 min each week for a 6-week period. Venous blood samples were collected from the volunteers in EDTA tubes. All blood samples were centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 15 min at 4 °C and stored in a -80 °C freezer until analysis by Randox machine. The primary outcome is to concentrate on metabolic results, such as improved HbA1c, blood pressure and improvements in insulin sensitivity determined by responses to oral glucose tolerance tests on independent days. The secondary outcome is change in serum level of inflammatory markers such interleukin 6 (IL-6), TNF-alpha, CRP and adiponectin. Results: There were significant reduction (p=0.00) on the HbA1c after applying of 6 weeks’ combination exercise intervention in both groups comparing to baseline. OGTT indicated significant differences between Pre Exercise and Post 12th exercise session in both groups with p=0.01. BG concentrations were reduced post each exercise session and was significant Post-EX S12 comparing PRE-EX to P=0.00 and P=0.09 in PRE-D and ND, respectively. SBP drops from 127.3±13.1 to 119.6±8.4 mmHg with P=0.04 in PRE-D while in ND was not significant. HR was significantly reduced (P=0.01) and goes from 73.5±10.3 to 70.3±12.1 in PRE-D and was significantly reduced (P=0.03). A significant improvement in interleukin 6, have been achieved with P=0.00 in PRE-D and wasn’t significant in ND group P=0.25. TNF-alpha no significant change has been achieved in all groups, while a significant improvement in adiponectin concentration PRE-D compare to ND and control groups. Conclusion: A combination exercise programs, which involves both RE and AE performed at moderate intensity (50-60% of 1RM) over 6-weeks period can improve overall inflammatory marker nature during pre-diabetes phase.
  • Thermoresponsive Gels
    Thermoresponsive Gels Taylor, M. Joan; Tomlins, P.; Sahota, T. S. Thermoresponsive gelling materials constructed from natural and synthetic polymers can be used to provide triggered action and therefore customised products such as drug delivery and regenerative medicine types as well as for other industries. Some materials give Arrhenius-type viscosity changes based on coil to globule transitions. Others produce more counterintuitive responses to temperature change because of agglomeration induced by enthalpic or entropic drivers. Extensive covalent crosslinking superimposes complexity of response and the upper and lower critical solution temperatures can translate to critical volume temperatures for these swellable but insoluble gels. Their structure and volume response confer advantages for actuation though they lack robustness. Dynamic covalent bonding has created an intermediate category where shape moulding and self-healing variants are useful for several platforms. Developing synthesis methodology—for example, Reversible Addition Fragmentation chain Transfer (RAFT) and Atomic Transfer Radical Polymerisation (ATRP)—provides an almost infinite range of materials that can be used for many of these gelling systems. For those that self-assemble into micelle systems that can gel, the upper and lower critical solution temperatures (UCST and LCST) are analogous to those for simpler dispersible polymers. However, the tuned hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance plus the introduction of additional pH-sensitivity and, for instance, thermochromic response, open the potential for coupled mechanisms to create complex drug targeting effects at the cellular level. An invited review and relates to the responsive gel used in the "artificial pancreas" work og INsmart, DMU. This article is an Open Access journal.
  • Closed-loop glycaemic control using an implantable artificial pancreas in diabetic domestic pig
    Closed-loop glycaemic control using an implantable artificial pancreas in diabetic domestic pig Taylor, M. Joan; Gregory, R.; Tomlins, P.; Jacob, D.; Hubble, J.; Sahota, T. S. The performance of a completely implantable peritoneal artificial pancreas (AP) has been demonstrated in principle in a live diabetic domestic pig. The device consists of a smart glucose-sensitive gel that forms a gateway to an insulin reservoir and is designed to both sense glucose and deliver insulin in the peritoneal cavity. It can be refilled with insulin via subcutaneous ports and surgery was developed to insert the AP. Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin (STZ), the device filled with insulin (Humulin1 R U-500) in situ and the animal observed for several weeks, during which time there was normal access to food and water and several oral glucose challenges. Blood glucose (BG) levels were brought down from >30 mmol/L (540 mg/dL) to non-fasted values between 7 and 13 mmol/L (126–234 mg/dL) about five days after filling the device. Glucose challenge responses improved ultimately so that, starting at 10 mmol/L (180 mg/dL), the BG peak was 18 mmol/L (324 mg/dL) and fell to 7 mmol/L (126 mg/dL) after 30 min, contrasting with intravenous attempts. The reservoir solution was removed after 8 days of blood glucose levels during which they had been increasingly better controlled. A rapid return to diabetic BG levels (30 mmol/L) occurred only after a further 24 days implying some insulin had remained in the device after removal of the reservoir solution. Thus, the closed loop system appeared to have particular influence on the basal and bolus needs for the 8 days in which the reservoir solution was in place and substantial impact for a further 3 weeks. No additional insulin manual adjustment was given during this period. INsmart in the DMU Pharmacy department in association with University Hospitals Leicester, Bath University, National Physical Laboratory and Renfrew International Group Leicester
  • Long term stability of glucose responsive dextran methacylate-concanavalin A Methacrylamide gels as part of an implantable artificial pancreas
    Long term stability of glucose responsive dextran methacylate-concanavalin A Methacrylamide gels as part of an implantable artificial pancreas Sahota, T. S.; Tomlins, P.; Taylor, M. Joan A closed loop implantable insulin delivery device which delivers insulin to the peritoneum in an automated fashion linked to changing glucose levels has been developed and previously tested in diabetic rats and pigs. The device delivers insulin via a glucose-sensitive gel which comprises of photopolymerised acrylic derivatives of dextran and concanavalin A and acts as both a sensor and controller of the amount of insulin released. In this work the long term stability of these acrylic polymerised gels and also dextran and concanavalin A mixtures has been shown at 20°C and 37°C by rheological characterisation when stored with and without 0.1%w/w glucose. Acrylic gels were found to have a stable complex viscosity for over 730 days at these temperatures indicating that over time they do not undergo degradation. Mixtures and polymerised gels were also dialysed in the presence of chymotrypsin which is present in the peritoneum (device implant site) to assess gel integrity across a range of pore size dialysis membranes. Polymerised acrylic gels contained in dialysis membranes of 50kDa were found to be resistant to degradation over a long time (>500 days). These results show that these gels would be ideal candidates as part of an implantable insulin delivery device.
  • A Survey Comparing the Management of Diabetes, Hypoglycaemia and Hyperglycaemia by Type 1 and Type 2 Insulin Users
    A Survey Comparing the Management of Diabetes, Hypoglycaemia and Hyperglycaemia by Type 1 and Type 2 Insulin Users Taylor, M. Joan; Sahota, T. S.; Tomlins, P.; Gregory, R.; Alblihed, Mohamd Abdulrahman; Alsabih, A. Aim: The opinions and attitudes of type 1 (T1) and type 2 (T2) insulin users toward their diagnosis, management, treatment and complications as a result of their diabetes were sought. Methods: A bottom-up survey design consisting of 66 open and closed questions was used to determine both positive and negative experiences of patients currently using insulin by injection only. Results: 707 insulin users (71% T1 and 29% T2) predominately from the UK completed the questionnaire. A comparison between T1 and T2 insulin users found that exercise, diet, BG testing and excursions from normoglycaemia were the most common source of difficulty amongst these insulin dependent patients. The majority of T1 participants were found to use a basal bolus insulin regimen (Lantus/Levemir and a short-acting insulin such as Novorapid®, Humalog® or Actrapid® but only 34% of T2 insulin users used a similar system with 35% using biphasic insulin aspart 30 (Novomix®) which may have due to lesser hypoglycaemic events. Conclusions: The results from this survey which focus on the common needs of insulin users show that careful follow-up after diagnosis, frequent testing and education about calorie turnover from intake and exercise are required for both T1 patients but more so for T2 patients whose needs become similar to those of T1 patients once they begin to inject insulin.
  • Synthesis and Identification of FITC-Insulin Conjugates Produced Using Human Insulin and Insulin Analogues for Biomedical Applications
    Synthesis and Identification of FITC-Insulin Conjugates Produced Using Human Insulin and Insulin Analogues for Biomedical Applications Jacob, Dolly; Taylor, M. Joan; Tomlins, P.; Sahota, T. S. fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and the conjugate species produced were identified using high performance liquid chromatography and electrospray mass spectroscopy. Mono-labelled FITC-insulin conjugate (A1 or B1) was successfully produced using human insulin at short reaction times (up to 5 h) however the product always contained some unlabelled native human insulin. As the reaction time was increased over 45 h, no unlabelled native human insulin was present and more di-labelled FITC-insulin conjugate (A1B1) was produced than mono-labelled conjugate with the appearance of tri-labelled conjugate (A1B1B29) after 20 h reaction time. The quantities switch from mono-labelled to di-labelled FITC-insulin conjugate between reaction times 9 and 20 h. In the presence of phenol or m-cresol, there appears to be a 10 % decrease in the amount of mono-labelled conjugate and an increase in di-labelled conjugate produced at lower reaction times. Clinically used insulin analogues present in commercially available preparations were successfully fluorescently labelled for future biomedical applications. We thank EPSRC National Mass Spectrometry Facility, Swansea University for their help with FITC-insulin analysis.
  • Diffusion of fluorescent insulin from an acrylic derivatised dextran-concanavalin A gel in an implantable closed loop insulin delivery device
    Diffusion of fluorescent insulin from an acrylic derivatised dextran-concanavalin A gel in an implantable closed loop insulin delivery device Jacob, D.; Taylor, M. Joan; Tomlins, P.; Sahota, T. S.; Jaroszkiewicz, E. The drug delivery mechanism of fluorescently labelled fluorescein isothiocyanate insulin (FITC-insulin) from a glucose responsive gel held in an implantable closed loop insulin delivery device was found to be diffusion controlled. The diffusion coefficient of FITC-insulin in the gel was determined and response to glucose challenges assessed. In response to physiologically relevant glucose challenges in the NP gel, the diffusivity of FITC-insulin increases with increasing glucose concentrations, showing a second order polynomial fit, device thus showing glucose sensitivity and graded response, mimicking pancreas. D Jacob peer reviewed abstract accepted for poster presentation at 41st Controlled Release Society, Chicago, USA
  • Experiences and attitudes of people with T1 and T2 diabetes to exercise
    Experiences and attitudes of people with T1 and T2 diabetes to exercise Alsabih, A.; Sahota, T. S.; Taylor, M. Joan Poster presented by AON Alsabih at 7th Saudi Student Conference, 1 -2 February 2014, Edinburgh, UK
  • Insulin pump users would not rule out using an implantable artificial pancreas
    Insulin pump users would not rule out using an implantable artificial pancreas Taylor, M. Joan; Gregory, R.; Mitchell, H.; Alblihed, Mohamd Abdulrahman; Alsabih, A.; Tomlins, P.; Sahota, T. S.
  • Experiences and attitudes of people with T1 and T2 diabetes to exercise
    Experiences and attitudes of people with T1 and T2 diabetes to exercise Alsabih, A.; Taylor, M. Joan; Sahota, T. S. Poster presented at Insulin Club Meeting, from basic science to clinical practice conference, Berlin, Germany, 31 Oct - 2 Nov 2013

Click here for a full list of Joan Taylor's publications and outputs.

Key research outputs

Prof Taylor has led the development of a totally implantable artificial pancreas for the treatment of insulin dependent diabetes and the setting up of an exercise physiology lab in DMU for the study of exercise physiology in diabetes patients.

Research interests/expertise

  • Insulin physico-chemistry
  • Diabetes control
  • Drug delivery
  • Rheometry (viscosity of gels and sols)
  • Engineering and design of devices for drug delivery
  • Physiological parameters for exercise in diabetes.

Areas of teaching

  • Compounding of medicines
  • Pharmaceutics and formulation
  • Biopharmaceutics, with focus on eye and brain
  • Targeted drug delivery
  • Delivery of insulin in diabetes.

Qualifications

BSc, MSc, PhD, GPhC MRPSGB

Courses taught

  • Pharmacy MPharm
  • Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Science and associated MSc
  • MSc degree QbD.

Membership of professional associations and societies

  • Member of the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain
  • Member of the General Pharmaceutical Council (GPhC)

Professional licences and certificates

Membership of GPhC is licence to practise.

Forthcoming events

  • CRS in Quebec - July 2012
  • APS in Nottingham - Sept 2012
  • Diabetes Technology Meeting, Bethesda - Nov 2012
  • Development of Channel 4 programme Body Build about artificial organs for broadcast in UK and US and an exhibition in Kensington Science Museum and Washington Smithsonian – Winter 2012
  • Development of NHS TV programme for broadcast - Winter 2012.

Conference attendance

Posters

Taylor, M. & Sahota, T. Glucose-sensitive insulin delivery in vivo - an artificial pancreas? (Poster) 3rd International conference on advanced treatments and technologies (ATTD) Basel Feb 2010.

Sahota T. S. and Taylor M. J. Competitive displacement of blue dextran by cibacron blue in dextran albumin gels? (Poster) Intern. Symp. Control. Rel. Bioact. Mater, Controlled Release Society, Inc. Portland, Oregon 2010.

Invited presentations

Taylor M. J. An overview of the role of closed loop control in diabetes Intern. Symp. Control. Rel. Bioact. Mater, Controlled Release Society, Inc. New York 2008 (invited talk, abstract printed in Journal of Controlled Release).

Taylor M. J. Automated basal–boost insulin delivery British Pharmaceutical Conference (Science) (invited talk, abstract printed in Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacology) Sept 2009.

Taylor, M. & Sahota, T. Devising an automated basal–boost insulin delivery system (invited talk) Bioengineering ’09 Conference, Oxford Sept 2009.

Taylor, M. & Sahota, T. Devising an automated basal–boost insulin delivery system (invited talk) Polymer Carriers for Controlled Drug Delivery at the 11th Pacific Polymer.
Conference series (PPC11) ’09 Conference, Cairns, N. Queensland December 2009.

Taylor, M. & Sahota, T. Devising an automated basal–boost insulin delivery system (invited talk) Australasian Pharmaceutical Science Association (APSA) & Aus-CRS scientific meeting ’09, Hobart, Tasmania Dec 2009.

Taylor M. J. In Pursuit of Closed Loop Delivery of Insulin. South East Health Technologies Alliance (SEHTA) Monitoring and Managing Drug Delivery –(no abstract) 2009.

Taylor M. J. Novel Closed Loop Delivery of Insulin. Royal Society of Medicine, Wimple St, London (no abstract) 2010 Direct link to video of lecture http://www.rsmvideos.com/videoPlayer/?vid=127

Taylor M. J. Novel Closed Loop Delivery of Insulin. Leicester Royal Infirmary Childrens Diabetes Group 2011.

Taylor M. J. Modern Methods of Insulin Delivery Association of British Clinical Diabetologists (ABCD) Leeds April 2012.

Consultancy work

  • Broadcasts about diabetes and the artificial pancreas.
  • Available for consultancy about drug/protein/insulin delivery except in COI cases
  • Available to teach or consult using rheometry (state of art equipment).

Current research students

1st Supervisor to:

  • Ahmed Alsabih
  • Mohammed Albihed
  • Dolly Jacob
  • E-Ching Luo

2nd Supervisor to:

  • Adeola Kola-Mustapha

Externally funded research grants information

  • Development of rodent model for testing artificial pancreas Lachesis - £248k investment and research support - 2004
  • Development of gel for artificial pancreas NEAT - £189k - 2004
  • Development of refillable artificial pancreas and pilot testing in pig model - NEAT £277k - 2008
  • Medical engineering for refillable pancreas Prospect IP - £55k - 2008
  • Additional for due diligence Lachesis - £5k - 2008
  • Development of pig model Edith Murphy Foundation - £50k research funding with 50% matched - 2008
  • Osmotic pressure and stability testing for gel in artificial pancreas Edith Murphy Foundation - £50k research funding with 50% matched - 2011
  • Business development, partner search, regulatory development for INSmart artificial pancreas Edith Murphy Foundation - £200 research funding - 2011

Internally funded research project information

Nanoparticle for CNS targeting HEIF - £10k - 2011

Published patents

Patents 1993-2012

Taylor, MJ Patent Application 9126301.2 (Improving Effectiveness of Drugs) (re-filed in December 1991, transferred to Pharmakopius International in 1994 and now lapsed.

Taylor, M. (1992). Drug System. Filing & published July 1993. Patent Application 9200638.6 (Drug System I) Patent WO 93/13803. Granted US (5,830,506 1998) (divisional 09/124,694 still pending late 2004). Europe EP0626862 B11999 granted Sept 1 1999, De Montfort University. Now being allowed to lapse as 2001 patent granted.

Taylor, M. (1993). Drug System II. Filing & published January 1995. Patent Application 9313484.9. Patent WO 95/01186. Granted US (5,902,607 1999) (divisional 09/124,445 or alternatively US6410053 granted 2002). Granted in Europe –EP0706401 Nov 27 2002, De Montfort University. Now being allowed to lapse as 2001 patent granted.

Taylor, M. (2001). Glucose Sensing Gel. (10 July 2001 filing; PCT filed July 2002, issued 23 01 03), GB.0116860.8, De Montfort University.(Granted in Europe Dec 2010 and in the US in 2012).

Taylor, M. (2012). Three new patents relating to the device in process of filing. Details available sumer 2012

Case studies

Information about the Artificial Pancreas
The artificial pancreas was developed by Professor Joan Taylor. It is made of a metal casing that holds a holds a gel filled barrier inside. http://www.informationaboutdiabetes.com/news/diabetes-research/information-about-the-artificial-pancreas

Leicester develop new artificial pancreas
A researcher from Leicester has developed an artificial pancreas which could put a stop to daily injections.
www.drwf.org.uk/tabid/705/View/true/ParentId/242/Default.aspx

Artificial pancreas offers hope to diabetics
A researcher has developed an artificial pancreas that she says could revolutionise the treatment of diabetes.
www.independent.ie/.../artificial-pancreas-offers-hope-to-diabetics-2341282.html

Artificial pancreas | Facebook
Professor Joan Taylor of De Montfort University has patented a new type of artificial pancreas.
http://www.facebook.com/pages/Artificial-pancreas/102178366490028

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