Dr Edward Smith

Job: Research Fellow

Faculty: Arts, Design and Humanities

School/department: School of Design

Research group(s): Textile Engineering and Materials (TEAM) Research Group

Address: Vijay Patel Design Wing VP5.22, De Montfort University, Leicester, LE1 9BH

T: +44 (0) 116 207 8372

E: esmith@dmu.ac.uk

 

Personal profile

  • Textile Chemistry
  • Textile Biotechnology
  • Natural fibres (bast fibres and wool)
  • Dyeing and finishing
  • Antimicrobial textile testing

Research group affiliations

Textile Engineering and Materials (TEAM) Research Group

Publications and outputs 

  • Selective enzymatic modification of wool/polyester blended fabrics for surface patterning
    Selective enzymatic modification of wool/polyester blended fabrics for surface patterning Prajapati, Chetna; Smith, Edward; Kane, Faith; Shen, Jinsong An enzyme-based process was investigated to achieve surface patterning of fabrics as an alternative to conventional chemical processes. In the current study, the enzyme protease was employed to selectively modify a wool/polyester blended fabric to impart decorative surface effects. Controlled protease processing of the blended fabric dyed with Lanasol Blue CE enabled the degradation and removal of the dyed wool fibre component from the fabric blend, resulting in novel fading and differential fabric relief due to degradation of wool, revealing the undyed polyester component after enzyme treatment. A 38.5% weight loss was achieved, therefore 85.6% of the wool in the 45/55% wool/polyester blended fabric was removed from the structure. The activity of protease is highly specific, therefore, it caused no damage to the polyester component. The control studies led to the development of surface pattern designs using the enzyme process, achieving effects similar to current processes such as devor e and discharge printing. This novel enzyme process permits the replacement of harsh chemicals used in current surface patterning processes with small doses of biodegradable enzymes. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Enzyme-based biotechnology for textile coloration and surface pattern
    Enzyme-based biotechnology for textile coloration and surface pattern Shen, Jinsong; Prajapati, Chetna; Smith, Edward; Kane, Faith Coloration is an important process in textile finishing, which is commonly used to enhance the appearance and attractiveness of a fabric. Conventional textile coloration methods and techniques employed to create surface patterning through dyeing and printing systems are known to have a negative impact on the environment due to their resource intensive production processes. The adoption of an alternative approach using enzymes (bio-catalysts) could potentially offer processes with improved environmental sustainability by eliminating the inherent drawbacks associated with chemical processes. Enzymes, laccase and protease were used in this study as innovative biotechnology-based textile design tools. Two enzymatic based processes were investigated to achieve textile coloration and or decorative surface patterning of fabric as an alternative to conventional chemical processes. The study demonstrates the ability of laccase, through controlled application, to produce innovative coloration of wool and polyamide textile materials, and the enzyme protease to selectively modify wool blended fabrics to impart innovative decorative surface effects through fibre modification and degradation. Both processes offer important advantages over conventional processing methods, which use simpler and milder operating conditions that eliminate additional chemical use and reduce energy consumption.
  • Laccase-catalysed coloration of wool and nylon
    Laccase-catalysed coloration of wool and nylon Prajapati, Chetna; Smith, Edward; Kane, Faith; Shen, Jinsong The potential for laccase (EC 1.10.3.2) to be used within the area of textile coloration, specifically for the generation of decorative surface pattern design, remains relatively unexplored. The current study presents a novel process for the coloration of wool and nylon 6,6 fibres via laccase oxidation of aromatic compounds as an alternative to conventional dyeing methods. Emphasis was placed on producing a diverse colour palette, which was achieved through the investigation of three different aromatic compounds as laccase substrates: 1,4-dihydroxybenzene, 2,7-dihydroxynapthalene and 2,5-diaminobenzenesulphonic acid. Reaction processing parameters such as buffer systems and pH values, laccase and aromatic compound concentrations, and reaction times were investigated, all in the absence of additional chemical auxiliaries. Enzymatically dyed fabrics were tested against commercial standards, resulting in reasonably good colour fastness to wash. To demonstrate the coloration and design potential by laccase catalysation of aromatic compounds, specially constructed fabrics using a combination of undyed wool, nylon and polyester yarns were dyed using the one-step laccase-catalysed coloration process. The use of different fibre types and weave structures enabled simple colour variations to be produced. Shadow, reserve and contrasting effects were achieved with the laccase-catalysed dyeing process developed. Important advantages over conventional processing methods include the use of simpler and milder processing conditions that eliminate additional chemical use and reduce energy consumption. open access article
  • Enzyme-based Biotechnology for Textile Coloration and Surface Patterning
    Enzyme-based Biotechnology for Textile Coloration and Surface Patterning Shen, Jinsong; Prajapati, Chetna; Smith, Edward; Kane, Faith Textile wet processing, including preparation, coloration and finishing, significantly improves the performance of textile materials and apparel. However, conventional textile processes consume large quantities of water, energy and chemicals. As there is an increasing demand for sustainable textile materials and apparel, a major challenge ahead for textile manufacturing is to improve textile wet processing by replacing harmful chemicals and reducing the consumption of water and energy. Extensive research efforts have been made to develop enzymatic bioprocesses as alternatives to replace conventional textile processing methods. Laccases (oxidoreductase, EC 1.10.3.2) have become important enzymes for their application in textile processing due to their great versatility and capability of catalysing the oxidation of a broad substrate spectrum. Laccase is capable of catalysing the polymerisation of simple aromatic compounds to create polymeric colorants useful for textile fibre coloration. The use of laccase offers an attractive alternative method of coloration, with potential economic and environmental benefits. The current study demonstrates the ability of laccase, through controlled application, to produce innovative coloration of wool and nylon textile materials. A range of colours can be achieved through the alteration of processing conditions of the in-situ enzymatic coloration process used. The use of different fibre types and weave structures enabled simple colour variations to be produced with unique shadow, reserve and contrasting effects.
  • Innovative Technologies for Sustainable Textile Coloration and Surface Design
    Innovative Technologies for Sustainable Textile Coloration and Surface Design Morgan, Laura; Prajapati, Chetna; Shen, Jinsong; Kane, Faith; Tyrer, John; Smith, Edward The environmental impact of textile dyeing and finishing is of paramount concern in the textile industry. Research into two emerging textile processing technologies, laser processing and enzyme biotechnology, were investigated as a means of applying new surface design and coloration techniques with a focus on improving the efficiency and sustainability of existing textile design and finishing methods. Each technique considered a reduction in energy, dye chemicals, and subsequent waste water effluent for sustainable textile processing. Through industrial stakeholder engagement and cross-disciplinary research involving textile design, fibre and dye chemistry, biotechnology and optical engineering, the work resulted in a catalogue of new coloration and design techniques including: • Laser enhanced dyeing for wool and wool blend textiles; • Peri-dyeing: a laser dye-fixation method for textiles; • Laser moulding for synthetic stretch textiles; • Laser fading linen; • Laccase catalysed coloration for textile fibres; • Laccase catalysed decoloration to achieve decorative surface patterning; • Enzyme generated surface patterning; • Enzyme assisted printing for decorative surface patterning.
  • Development of Durable Shrink-resist Coating of Wool with Sol-gel Polymer Processing
    Development of Durable Shrink-resist Coating of Wool with Sol-gel Polymer Processing Shen, Jinsong; Smith, Edward; Chizyuka, Mutinta; Prajapati, Chetna Knitted wool fabric was pre-treated with the serine type protease, Esperase 8.0L (EC3.4.21.62), and sodium sulphite followed by an immersion treatment with a sol-gel hybrid polymer. To enhance the durability of the sol-gel treatment on wool, one of two different alkoxysilane containing coupling epoxy or mercapto groups were added to the sol-gel hybrid. The combination of protease treatment with an immersion sol-gel treatment achieved wool fabric that was lightweight with a soft handle and had combined shrink-resistance and hydrophobic properties without fibre discoloration. The addition of an alkoxysilane with a mercapto coupling group within the sol-gel hybrid gave better performance than using an alkoxysilane with an epoxy coupling group in terms of polymer uptake, fabric shrink resistance, whiteness and durability to washing. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Enzyme catalysed coloration and surface patterning
    Enzyme catalysed coloration and surface patterning Prajapati, Chetna; Shen, Jinsong; Smith, Edward
  • Enzymatic coloration and finishing of wool with laccase and polyethylenimine
    Enzymatic coloration and finishing of wool with laccase and polyethylenimine Yuan, Mengli; Wang, Qiang; Shen, Jinsong; Smith, Edward; Bai, Rubing; Fan, Xuerong Enzymes have been widely used in the textile wet processing. The precise reaction specificity of an enzyme has been utilised for specific or targeted textile finishing without causing undesirable fibre damage. Laccases are important enzymes for their application in textile processing due to their great versatility and capability of catalysing the oxidation of a broad range of substrates. The investigation of laccase-catalysed coloration towards either wool or polyethylenimine was carried out. It is understood that amino groups from wool and polyethylenimine are involved in the formation of polymeric colour during laccase catalysation of catechin and gallic acid. The colour depth and shrink-resistance of wool can be improved significantly by incorporating a multi-primary amine compound, such as polyethylenimine, and a crosslinking agent, such as glycerol diglycidyl ether, in the enzymatic coloration process of wool. This demonstrated the potential to achieve combined coloration and shrink-resistant finishing for wool fabrics. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Enzyme Catalysed Coloration and Surface Patterning
    Enzyme Catalysed Coloration and Surface Patterning Prajapati, Chetna; Smith, Edward; Kane, Faith; Shen, Jinsong COLORATION IS AN important process in textile finishing, which is commonly used to enhance the appearance and attractiveness of a cloth. Conventional textile coloration methods and techniques employed to create surface patterning through dyeing and printing systems are known to have a negative impact on the environment due to their resource intensive production processes. 1, 2 The adoption of an alternative approach using enzymes could potentially offer processes with improved environmental sustainable qualities by eliminating the inherent drawbacks associated with chemical processes. 3 Enzymes are highly specific biocatalysts, that can operate under mild processing conditions, therefore, reducing not only the consumption of chemicals, energy and water, but also the subsequent generation of effluent waste. Furthermore, enzymes are biodegradable and offer the possibility of recycling. The application of enzymes for textile wet processing have been examined widely. Desizing, bio-scouring, bio-polishing and bleach clean-up using enzymes have become well established industrially. However, only limited work has been carried out on the application of enzymes for textile surface design. Enzymes, protease and laccase, were used in this study as innovative biotechnology-based textile design tools for textile coloration and surface patterning.
  • Laccase-catalysed colouration of wool and nylon fibres
    Laccase-catalysed colouration of wool and nylon fibres Prajapati, Chetna; Smith, Edward; Kane, Faith; Shen, Jinsong

 

Click here for a full listing of Edward Smith's publications and outputs.

Key research outputs

Enzymatic treatment of wool pre-treated with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide to achieve machine washability
Smith E, Shen J. (2012) Enzymatic treatment of wool pre-treated with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide to achieve machine washability. Biocatalysis and Biotransformation, 30 (1), pp. 38-47

Surface modification of wool with protease extracted polypeptides 
Smith E, Shen J. (2011) Surface modification of wool with protease extracted polypeptides. Journal of Biotechnology 156, pp. 134-140 

The removal of lipid from the surface of wool to promote the subsequent enzymatic process with modified protease for wool shrink resistance
 Smith E, Farrand B, Shen J.  (2010) The removal of lipid from the surface of wool to promote the subsequent enzymatic process with modified protease for wool shrink resistance. Biocatalysis and Biotransformation 28, pp. 329-338 

Covalent bonding of protease to different sized enteric polymers and their potential use in wool processing 
Smith E, Schroeder M, Guebitz G, Shen J.  (2010) Covalent bonding of protease to different sized enteric polymers and their potential use in wool processing. Enzyme and Microbial Technology 47, pp. 105-111 

Comparison of antimicrobial textile treatments 
Smith E, Williams JT, Walsh SE, Painter P. (2010), Comparison of antimicrobial textile treatments, In: Medical and Healthcare Textiles: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Healthcare and Medical Textiles. editors. Kennedy JF, Anand SC, Miraftab M, Rajendran S. Woodhead Textile Series  No. 75. ISBN 1845692241

Research interests/expertise

Recent research has been in areas including chemical modification of enzymes to improve the performance of wool fibre/ fabric; chemical processing of bast fibre (flax and hemp); functional finishing of fabric using sol-gel and the efficacy of antimicrobial textile testing methodology.

Areas of teaching

Textile materials and technology including coloration, fibres and yarns

Qualifications

  • PhD in Colour and Polymer Chemistry (University of Leeds)
  • MSc in Conservation Science ( De Montfort University, Leicester)
  • BSc (Hons) in Chemistry (University of East Anglia, Norwich)

Courses taught

Currently teach in the following modules:

FBUY 1001: Textile Materials: Coloration and Fibres & Yarns

TXDN 1004: Textile Contexts: Coloration and Fibre Identification

MDTI 5001: Design Innovation and Sustainability

MDTI 5002: Key Textile Technologies

MDTI 5003: Performance and Analysis

Membership of professional associations and societies

Royal Society of Chemistry – Associate Member (AMRSC)

 

Conference attendance

Presenter (Oral):

Smith E, Shen J. Surface treatment of wool to achieve hydrophilic fibre and the effect on subsequent dyeing and protease treatment, International Conference on Eco-Dyeing/ Finishing and Green Chemistry, 8th -12th June, 2011, Hangzhou, China. 

Smith E, Shen J. Treatment of wool with enzyme extracted wool polypeptide to achieve shrink resistance, 7th International Conference on Polymer and Textile Biotechnology, 2nd – 4th March, 2011, Milan, Italy.

Smith E, Williams JT, Walsh SE, Painter, P. Comparison of antimicrobial textile treatments,  4th International Conference and Exhibition on Healthcare and Medical Textiles (MEDTEX’07),16th – 18th July 2007,  Bolton, UK.

Smith, E., Comparison of antimicrobial textile test methods, International Biodeterioration Research Group (IBRG) textiles section meeting, 27th October 2006, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Poster presentations:

Smith E, Zhang Q, Farrand B, Kokol V, Shen J. The development of a bio-scouring process for raw wool using protease, International Conference on Eco-Dyeing/ Finishing and Green Chemistry, June 8-12, 2011, Hangzhou, China.

Contributor:

Shen J, Smith E, Chizyuka M, Walsh S, Martinková L. Sol gel hybrid polymer coating of cotton fabrics, International Conference on Eco-Dyeing/ Finishing and Green Chemistry, 8th – 12th June 2011, Hangzhou, China.

Shen J, Smith E, Dogra N. Development of hydrophobic and antibacterial cotton fabric by sol-gel based surface coating, 7th International Conference on Polymer and Textile Biotechnology, 2nd - 4th March 2011, Milan, Italy.

Shen J, Smith E, Farrand B, Zhang Q. Development of functional surface coatings of wool fibre using sol gel or extracted protein resin, Cost Action 868 workshop on Biotechnical Functionalisation of Renewable Polymer Materials, 18th – 19th September 2008, Varna, Bulgaria.

Session Chair: 

I chaired an Oral Presentation Session, Session A-4 on Functional Textiles (10th June 2011) at the International Conference on Eco-Dyeing/ Finishing and Green Chemistry, June 8-12, 2011, Hangzhou, China.

Consultancy work

Consultancies undertaken:

  • Natural fibre (bast) testing and analysis for two UK based companies 
  • Bast fibre processing research, development and analysis for a North American based company (see external funding)

Current research students

  • Nalinee Netithammakorn
  • Guoli Li
  • Chetna Prajapati (completed PhD April 2017)
  • Mutinta Chizyuka (completed PhD January 2016)

Externally funded research grants information

March 2012 – July 2015: Bast Fibre Processing Optimisation (Project Tiger), commercially funded

June 2011 – February 2012: Flax Processing Optimisation (CHEMEXBAST II), commercially funded

September 2010 – October 2010: CHEMEXBAST: the optimisation of chemical extraction processing of bast fibres, commercially funded

February 2010 – August 2010: Optimisation of Enzyme Processing of Wool – Follow up (HIRF 447F), Innovation Fellowship funded by EMDA & ERDF

March 2009 – August 2009: Optimisation of Enzyme Processing of Wool (HIRF 385), Innovation Fellowship funded by EMDA

Professional esteem indicators

I have refereed research papers for the following journals since January 2008:

  • Textile Research Journal
  • Coloration Technology
  • Amino Acids
  • Biomacromolecules
  • Engineering in Life Sciences
  • Research Journal of Textile and Apparel
Edward Smith

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