Dr Beatriz Pichel

Job: VC2020 Lecturer in Photographic History

Faculty: Arts, Design and Humanities

School/department: School of Humanities

Research group(s): Photographic History Research Centre

Address: De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester, LE1 9BH

T: +44 (0)116 2506427

E: beatriz.pichel@dmu.ac.uk

W: http://www.dmu.ac.uk/phrc

 

Personal profile

Beatriz is specialist in photographic history, history of medicine and medical humanities, history of emotions and the cultural history of war. After finishing her degree in Philosophy at the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM), she specialised in the history of sciences. Her PhD, awarded in 2012 (UAM), examined how photographic practices in First World War France shaped ideas and experiences of death at war. During her doctoral years, Beatriz developed great interest in photographic history, the history of the body and the history of emotions, and was fascinated by medical photography. In 2014, she joined the PHRC as a Wellcome Trust Research Fellow. Her postdoctoral project focused on photography and emotions in psychology and theatre at the turn of the nineteenth century in France. She has published on this topic in History of the Human Sciences (2015), Fotogeschichte (2016) and Media History (2018), and is working with Dr Dolores Martin Moruno on the edition of a collective volume on Emotional Bodies. Studies on the Historical Performativity of Emotions, which will be published with University of Illinois Press. Beatriz is currently finishing her first monograph on photography and war experiences during the First World War. Her new project, Photography and the Making of the Medical Sciences in France, 1860-1914, has been awarded a British Academy Small Research Grant, and will be published as a monograph with Palgrave, in the series 'Medicine and Biomedical Sciences in Modern History'.

Beatriz welcomes applications from prospective PhD students interested in the areas of photographic history, medical history, gender history and the history of emotions.

Research group affiliations

Publications and outputs 

  • Emotional Bodies. The Historical Performativity of Emotions
    Emotional Bodies. The Historical Performativity of Emotions Pichel, Beatriz; Martin Moruno, Dolores What do emotions actually do? Recent work in the history of emotions and its intersections with cultural studies and new materialism has produced groundbreaking revelations around this fundamental question. In Emotional Bodies, contributors pick up these threads of inquiry to propose a much-needed theoretical framework for further study of materiality of emotions, with an emphasis on emotions' performative nature. Drawing on diverse sources and wide-ranging theoretical approaches, they illuminate how various persons and groups—patients, criminals, medieval religious communities, revolutionary crowds, and humanitarian agencies—perform emotional practices. A section devoted to medical history examines individual bodies while a section on social and political histories studies the emergence of collective bodies. Contributors: Jon Arrizabalaga, Rob Boddice, Leticia Fernández-Fontecha, Emma Hutchison, Dolores Martín-Moruno, Piroska Nagy, Beatriz Pichel, María Rosón, Pilar León-Sanz, Bertrand Taithe, and Gian Marco Vidor. "This wide-ranging and rigorously historicized collection of essays gives new insights into how emotions have changed and been deployed over time. The stress on emotions as a practical engagement with the world that has tangible effects is especially welcome."--Jo Labanyi, editor of Constructing Identity in Contemporary Spain: Theoretical Debates and Cultural Practice
  • Photographing the Emotional Body. Performing Expressions in the Theatre and the Psychological Sciences
    Photographing the Emotional Body. Performing Expressions in the Theatre and the Psychological Sciences Pichel, Beatriz This chapter examines the medical, chronophotographic and theatrical photographs taken in the 1890s by Albert Londe, Head of the Photographic Service at the Parisian hospital La Salpêtrière. Situating Londe’s production in the broader context of psychological and physiological theories of emotions emerging at the time, this chapter argues that photography became a key tool in the understanding of embodied expressions of emotions. Photographs served scientific and laypeople to grasp the gestures’ meaning, that is, the emotions that they were supposed to communicate, as well as their materiality, the nervous and muscular processes than produced them. This analysis demonstrates that photographic practices became performative practices which articulated emotional bodies
  • Reading Photography in French Nineteenth-Century Journals
    Reading Photography in French Nineteenth-Century Journals Pichel, Beatriz This article explores how photographs published in the French medical and, to some extent, the popular press helped readers to interpret expressions and gestures as signs of emotional states, morbid conditions and physiological and psychological processes. The first two sections examine the use of photography to visualise normal and pathological bodies through measurements and experiments in the medical press, particularly Nouvelle Iconographie de la Salpêtrière, Archives de Neurologie and L’Année Psychologique. The next two sections study how the development of new photographic processes such as the magnesium flash and chronophotography created new conditions in which the body could be visually scrutinised in the medical press as well as popular journals such as Le Théâtre and the general scientific journal La Nature. This analysis results in two main findings: 1) medical journals used photography to assert their own disciplinary identities, and 2) photography acted as a potential bridge between audiences, as some medical and popular journals shared the same beliefs regarding photography’s ability to represent the human body, but approached photographic innovations from different, albeit complementary, ways. Open access article
  • Cuerpos patológicos. Fotografía y medicina en el siglo XIX
    Cuerpos patológicos. Fotografía y medicina en el siglo XIX Pichel, Beatriz This article examines different approaches to nineteenth-century medical photography. It argues that we should go beyond the visual analysis to examine the material conditions in which photographs were taken and reproduced. It does so taking as a case study two illustrated journals: Iconographie photographique de la Salpêtrière (1875-1880) y Nouvelle iconographie de la Salpêtrière (1888-1918). An exhaustive analysis demonstrates that the different photographic practices materialised in each publication constructed visually and medically the hysterical body in a different way.
  • Les Gueules Cases. Photography and the Making of Disfigurement
    Les Gueules Cases. Photography and the Making of Disfigurement Pichel, Beatriz Between 1914 and 1918, French visual culture was saturated with photographs of amputees: ex-combatants who had lost an arm or a leg, and had substituted them for prosthetic devices. However, these pictures were all about body mutilations. Facial injuries were also profusely photographed, but barely penetrated into the French visual culture. This article explores the reasons behind this invisibility. Itmaintains that, during the war, bodily mutilations were associated with discourses on re-education, while facial wounds were connected to the rhetoric of reconstruction. This distinction, grounded on concerns about the function of the limbs and the appearance of the face, was the source of the sparse dissemination of photographs of facial injuries. It will be argued that these wounds became visible only when the focus shifted from the appearance to the social function of the face, and facial injuries began to be understood as ‘disfigurement’. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Die psychologie des lächelns bei Georges Dumas. Eine fotogeschiliche studie
    Die psychologie des lächelns bei Georges Dumas. Eine fotogeschiliche studie Pichel, Beatriz
  • From Facial Expressions to Bodily Gestures. Passions, Photography and Movement in French 19th century Sciences
    From Facial Expressions to Bodily Gestures. Passions, Photography and Movement in French 19th century Sciences Pichel, Beatriz This article aims to determine to what extent photographic practices in psychology, psychiatry and physiology contributed to the definition of the external bodily signs of passions and emotions in the second half of the 19th century in France. Bridging the gap between recent research in the history of emotions and photographic history, the following analyses focus on the photographic production of scientists and photographers who made significant contributions to the study of expressions and gestures, namely Duchenne de Boulogne, Charles Darwin, Paul Richer and Albert Londe. This article argues that photography became a key technology in their works due to the adequateness of the exposure time of different cameras to the duration of the bodily manifestations to be recorded, and that these uses constituted facial expressions and bodily gestures as particular objects for the scientific study. Open Access article
  • Illness and image. Case studies in the medical humanities by Sander L. Gilman
    Illness and image. Case studies in the medical humanities by Sander L. Gilman Pichel, Beatriz
  • De la SPA a los fotógrafos amateur. La cámara como instrumento de apropriación de la guerra
    De la SPA a los fotógrafos amateur. La cámara como instrumento de apropriación de la guerra Pichel, Beatriz The Great War led to political, social and technological transformations that affected the development of late conflicts in Europe. But not all transformations were related to weaponry. This paper will examine the impact that the war had in the improvement of the relatively new technology of photography, and the ways in which photographic practices framed different war experiences. With this aim in mind, this paper will analysis several military and civil uses of photography in France, focusing on the two main collectives: the section photographique de l’armée, the military photographic service created in 1915 with the purpose of taken official images of the war, and the amateur photographers, which were soldiers and officers who brought their own cameras to the front. In both cases, this paper will examine the ways in which the military propaganda used photography to build and disseminate its messages. In particular, the focus of the analysis will be on how military services tried to control photographic practices, and how these practices penetrated into the civil society, who appropriated them. In this way, this paper will show that photography became a key technology for the French population during the war not only because photographs allowed the population to see what was happening. Above all, photography became essential because the uses of photographs and cameras allowed the appropriation of the conflict and its integration into family memory by means of the albums.
  • Death that Matters. Bodies and Masculinity in French Photography During the First World War
    Death that Matters. Bodies and Masculinity in French Photography During the First World War Pichel, Beatriz

Click here to view a full listing of Beatriz Pichel's publications and outputs.

Key research outputs

  • 2018: Reading Photography in French Nineteenth-Century Periodicals”, Media History, Special Issue “Working with Nineteenth-Century Medical and Health Periodicals” (online first), OA
  • 2016: “Les Gueules Cassées: Photography and the Making of Disfigurement”, Journal of War and Culture Studies Special Issue “Assessing the Legacy of the Gueules Cassées: From surgery to art”. Published online first.

  • 2016: “The Psychology of the Smile in Georges Dumas: A Photographic Study”, in Fotogeschichte. Summer, 140: 36, 13-24.
  • 2015: “From Facial Expressions to Bodily Gestures: Photography, Passions and Movement in Nineteenth-Century Sciences in France”, History of the Human Sciences, online first 27 December, vol 29 (1), 2016, pp. 27-48. OA. http://hhs.sagepub.com/content/early/2015/12/24/0952695115618592.full.pdf?ijkey=C9mKzGQyQGIxqMa&keytype=finite

Research interests/expertise

-        Photographic History / History of Photography

-        Medical Humanities

-        History of Medicine

-        Cultural History

-        History of Emotions

-        History of the Body

-        Gender and Women’s History

-        History of War

-        Visual Science and Technology Studies

Areas of teaching

  •  Photography History
  •  History
  • History of Science and Medicine
  • Gender History

Qualifications

  • PhD in History and Philosophy of Sciences, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain (2012)
  • M.A. in Sciences and Culture Studies, UAM, Spain (2008)
  • B.A. in Philosophy, UAM, Spain (2006)

Courses taught

I currently teach three undergraduate modules:

-        HIST2011 Visualising the Modern World

-        HIST3026 Photography and Conflict

-        HIST2022 From Newton to Nuclear: An Introduction to the History of Science

 

I also collaborate teaching in other undergraduate modules in History, and postgraduate modules in the MA Photographic History

 

Honours and awards

 

Membership of professional associations and societies

Social History Society

Society for the Social History of Medicine

Projects

Photography and the Making of Modern Medicine in France (1870-1914)

British Academy/ Leverhulme Small Research Grant

January 2019- December 2020

This project will explore the emergence and development of medical photography in France between 1860 and 1914. The main outcome of this project will be a monograph, which will retell important episodes of the history of medicine such as the birth of experimental psychology and the development of specialised medical journals from a photographic point of view. By examining images as well as photographic materials and discourses, the book will argue that photographic practices contributed to the making of medical knowledge, the shaping of medical specialisms and the communication of scientific ideas. Unique in its scope and approach, this project aims to demonstrate the fundamental role that photography played in the shaping of the medical field in France and to provide a model of analysis of photographic sources that is useful for medical and cultural historians as well as photographic historians.

 

Forthcoming events

 

Conference attendance

“Normalising the MedicalPortrait. Photographic Protocols in French Institutions Around 1900”. Society for the Social History of Medicine, Conference, 11-13 July 2018, University of Liverpool, UK

“Photographic Protocols in French Medical Institutions Around 1900”, Medicine in Focus. 10 May 2018, University of Leeds, UK

“Doctors and Patients at the Photographic Studio”, European Social Science History Conference, 4-6 April 2018, Belfast, Ireland

“The Multiple Meanings of Medical Photography: A French Case Study”. French Studies and the Medical Humanities, 10-11 November 2017, ILMR, UK

“The Multiple Meanings of Medical Photography”, British Society for the History of Medicine, 13-15 September 2017, Royal College of Surgeons, Edinburgh, UK

“Photography, Physiology and Emotions at the Collège de France and beyond”, Reading Bodies, Writing Minds, 13th April 2017, University of Nottingham, UK

“Medicine in the Photographic Studio”, Society for Social History of Medicine Conference “Medicine in its place”, 7th -10th July 2016, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK.“Photographing Emotions in the Nineteenth Century”, Social History Society Conference, 21st -23rd March 2016, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK.

“Reading Photography in French Nineteenth Century Periodicals”, Workshop “Working with Nineteenth-Century Medical and Health Periodicals”, 30th May 2015, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

“Photographing the Emotional Body in the Nineteenth Century”, Colloquium “The History of the Body: Approaches and Directions”, 16th May 2015, Institute of Historical Research, London, UK.

“Portraying the Gueules Cassées: Photography and the Making of Disfigurement”, 1914FACES2014 Conference “Les gueules cassées: disfigurement and its legacies”, 12th 14th March 2015, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.

“Between Science and Art. Chronophotographs and Drawings as Research Tools in Physiology (1895-1906)”, Hybrid Photography, 18th-21st February 2015, Freie Universität, Berlin.

“Historical Perspectives on the Medical Photographs of the Gueules Cassées. Disfigurement and Expressions Between 1862 and 1932”, Workshop 1914FACES2014 Workshop “Visual Evidence and the Archive”, 18th September 2014, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.

“De la section photographique de l’armée a los fotógrafos amateur. La cámara como instrumento de apropiación durante la Primera Guerra Mundial”, XIV Congreso de la Sociedad Española de Historia de la Ciencia y de la Técnica, 11th September 2014, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

“From Facial Expressions to Bodily Gestures. The Question of Movement in French Photography (1862-1902)”, Keynote Speaker. METABODY 4th International forum, 11th July 2014, Universidad de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

“Children in Pain. Photography and the Performance of Pain in British Hospitals” with Leticia Fernández-Fontecha, Session “Portraiture and Pain”, Association of Art Historians Annual Conference, Royal College of Art, 10-12 April 2014, London, UK.

“Photography and the Science of the Emotions at the Turn of the Nineteenth Century”, SDN Conference “The Emotions”, 28th-30th March 2014, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

“Knowing the Male Body. Photographic Portraits of Facial Disfigurement During and After the Great War”, 24th International Congress on History of Science, Technology and Medicine, 22nd -28th July 2013, University of Manchester, UK.

“First World War Photography and the Making of History”, Workshop  “Professional Photography and Amateur Snapshots”, 27th-29th June 2013, University of Nottingham, UK. 

Current research students

I currently supervise students working on the history of women institutional photographers in the nineneeth century, visual education in Imperial Britain and the historical photographic archive of the Victoria & Albert Museum.

I welcome research students interested in interdisciplinary projects on photographic history, the history of medicine, the history of emotions, women’s history and gender studies, cultural history, medical humanities and visual STS, as well as related disciplines.

Externally funded research grants information

British Academy/Leverhulme Small Research Grant, Ref: SRG18R1\181193. Awarded for the project: “Photography and the Making of Modern Medicine in France (1860-1914)January 2019- December 2020.

Wellcome Trust Research Fellowship in Medical Humanities, Ref: 103101/Z/13/Z. Awarded for the project: “The Emotional Body: Medical and Theatrical Practices at the Turn of the Nineteenth Century in France”. Photographic History Research Centre, De Montfort University. February 2014- January 2016, non-costed extension until 31st of August 2016.

Wellcome Trust Small Grant: organization of the conference “Emotional Bodies”, Geneva, 20-22 October 2014

Internally funded research project information

Research Investment Fund (RIF 9), De Montfort University. Workshop “Visualising Reproduction in Medical, Social and Historical Contexts: An Interdisciplinary Inquiry”. July 2017 – July 2018.

Professional esteem indicators

Reviewer for History of the Human Sciences

Reviewer for Bloomsbury 

Case studies

In relation to my article published in History of the Human Sciences (2015), I was interviewed in their new website http://www.histhum.com/?p=91

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