Ms Caroline Law

Job: Research Fellow

Faculty: Health and Life Sciences

School/department: School of Applied Social Sciences

Address: De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester, LE1 9BH.

T: +44 (0)116 250 6124

E: claw@dmu.ac.uk

W: http://www.dmu.ac.uk/hls

 

Personal profile

Caroline Law is a Research Fellow with a background in sociology and in conducting social research. Prior to her role at De Montfort University, Caroline worked in research in adult learning, conducting research in order to support advocacy and influence policy and practice. She joined De Montfort University in 2012 as a member of the Centre for Reproduction Research, a multi-disciplinary research cluster based in the Faculty of Health and Life Sciences. She is primarily involved in research relating to the social experiences of endometriosis; men and reproduction; reproductive timing and aging; and the social aspects of reproduction and infertility. She undertakes teaching on research methods and gender and health. She is PhD candidate, exploring men's perceptions and intentions regarding reproductive timings.

Research group affiliations

Publications and outputs 

  • Men on the margins? Reflections on recruiting and engaging men in reproduction research
    Men on the margins? Reflections on recruiting and engaging men in reproduction research Law, Caroline While social science research into reproduction is a vibrant and growing field of scholarly activity, the majority of research is conducted with women and focusses on women’s lives. Reproduction research which does focus on men tends to overlook aspects such as pre-conception desires for parenthood and planning. Scholars have argued for a greater inclusion of men in reproduction research, yet there is a paucity of methodological literature addressing how best to do so. This paper reports methodological reflections from a qualitative study into men’s perceptions and intentions regarding the ‘right time’ to have children. It does this in reference to Critical Studies of Men and Masculinities (CSM) - which foregrounds men as gendered beings and comprises the study of the gendered nature of men’s lives - as both a theoretical position influencing study conception and design, and as an explanatory framework for enhancing understanding of the research encounter. The first part of the paper describes the CSM-informed study conceptualisation and design, specifically the decisions to include unpartnered men in the sample and to address the absence of men in reproduction research in recruitment materials. It then goes on to discuss the most effective recruitment strategy employed, recruiting through informal gatekeepers, and to consider the consequences of this. The second part of the paper presents data from the male participants pertaining to their stated motivations for participating, which relate to interest, helpfulness, and in response to perceived marginalisation, as well as their reflections on the interview encounter as enabling them to construct a narrative. It aims to extend knowledge and understanding regarding engaging men in reproduction research and to illustrate the utility of CSM for doing so; and in doing so to advance both reproduction research as well as discussions of CSM and methodology more broadly. Open access article
  • Conducting dyadic, relational research about endometriosis: A reflexive account of methods, ethics and data analysis
    Conducting dyadic, relational research about endometriosis: A reflexive account of methods, ethics and data analysis Hudson, Nicky; Law, Caroline; Culley, Lorraine; Mitchell, H.; Denny, E.; Raine-Fenning, N. Despite a growing literature on the value of relational data in studies of social phenomena, individuals still commonly constitute the basic unit of analysis in qualitative research. Methodological aspects of interviewing couples, particularly interviewing partners separately, and of conducting dyadic analysis have received scant attention. This article describes the experience of conducting separate interviews with both partners in 22 heterosexual couples (n = 44) in a study of the impact of the gynaecological condition endometriosis. In order to advance current methodological thinking regarding interviewing couples, we describe the dyadic, relational approach employed in designing the study and our specific method of dyadic analysis. We argue that utilising separate interviews with dyadic analysis rather than conducting joint interviews, while not without its ethical, practical and analytical challenges, offers considerable methodological benefits. Such an approach allows a unique relational insight into the impact of chronic illness on couples and how they navigate chronic illness by illuminating both shared and individual interpretations, experiences, understandings and meanings open access article
  • Men and reproductive timings: perceptions, intentions and future imaginaries
    Men and reproductive timings: perceptions, intentions and future imaginaries Law, Caroline The sociology of human reproduction is a vibrant and growing field, and the phenomenon of ‘delayed childbearing’, or reproductive timings, is a particularly topical area of study. However, the vast majority of research regarding reproductive timings is concerned with women, which, scholars have argued, overemphasises female responsibility, leaving men’s positions and behaviours neglected. Despite a growing interest in men and reproduction in recent years, the majority of this research has been concerned with fatherhood, leaving other aspects overlooked including pre-conception desires and planning. Sociological explorations of the future have tended to focus at the macro level, concerned with developments in science and technology. Applying sociological explorations of the future at the individual level presents exciting new opportunities for enhancing understanding and for theoretical development. This paper presents findings from a doctoral, qualitative study into men and reproductive timings in which 25 interviews were conducted with men who do not have children but want or expect to have them in the future. Drawing on Daniels’ (2006) concept of ‘reproductive masculinity’ - which demonstrates how men are assumed to be secondary in reproduction; less vulnerable to reproductive harm; virile; and distant from health problems of offspring – it discusses how men’s future imaginaries are shaped by expectation and uncertainty, hope and fear, and knowledge and belief. In describing men’s accounts of the present and their imagined futures, it will explore how the present is orientated to the future through future-creating actions, and conversely how future imaginaries are shaped and rationalised by present circumstances.
  • Reproductive Masculinity: An Explanatory Concept to Enhance Understanding of Men and Reproductive Timings
    Reproductive Masculinity: An Explanatory Concept to Enhance Understanding of Men and Reproductive Timings Law, Caroline The sociology of human reproduction is a vibrant and growing field, yet the majority of research has historically been undertaken with women. Several scholars have therefore argued for a greater inclusion of men (Culley et al., 2013; Lohan, 2015). Despite a growing interest in men’s experiences in recent years, the majority of this research has been concerned with fatherhood, leaving other aspects overlooked including pre-conception desires and planning (Morison, 2013; Lohan, 2015). In addition, while not uncontested, evidence of men’s age related fertility decline appears to be growing (Johnson et al., 2015; Dodge, 2017). Daniels’ (2006) concept of ‘reproductive masculinity’ offers a potentially useful framework to enhance sociological explorations of reproductive timing. Daniels analysis demonstrates how men are assumed to be: secondary in reproduction; less vulnerable to reproductive harm; virile; and distant from health problems of offspring. This paper presents findings from a doctoral, qualitative study into men and reproductive timings in which 25 interviews were conducted with men who don’t have children but want or expect to have them in the future. The paper utilises the concept of reproductive masculinity as an organising framework, assessing its value in investigating issues of reproductive timing, including men’s views about the ‘right time’ to have children, ‘delayed’ childbearing and ‘older’ fatherhood, and their own intentions and expectations for future family building. It explores how elements of reproductive masculinity feature in men’s accounts, and how this enhances our understanding of how men position themselves, and are positioned, in relation to reproduction.
  • Men and delayed parenthood: a qualitative study of men’s views regarding the ‘right time’ to have children
    Men and delayed parenthood: a qualitative study of men’s views regarding the ‘right time’ to have children Law, Caroline The age at which people are becoming parenting has increased over recent decades. The average age of first-time mothers has risen from 27.3 in 2006 to 28.8 years in 2016; and while corresponding data on the average age of first-time fathers does not exist, the average age of men at the birth of any children (first and subsequent) has risen from 31.1 in 1993 to 33.3 years in 2016 (ONS 2014, 2017). However, in both lay and media discourse, as well as academic research and commentary, the majority of attention paid to ‘delayed childbearing’ has focused on women. This overemphasises female responsibility and implicates women’s behaviours in ‘problems’ of delayed childbearing, leaving men’s positions and behaviours neglected (Lloyd, 1996, in Greene and Biddlecom, 2000, Jamieson et al., 2010). This paper presents findings from a doctoral, qualitative, sociological study of men and reproductive timings in which 25 in-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with men who do not have children but want or expect to have them in the future. Men’s views about the right time and circumstances for becoming a father, and relatedly the barriers to doing so, are discussed in order to allow for a consideration of how and why men may be contributing to ‘delayed parenthood’. The paper explores men’s perceptions of age related fertility decline and of changing trends in when people become parents, and considers how their accounts may offer insights into wider social changes in the timing of parenthood. Finally, it considers the data in relation to the notion of men acting as a ‘drag’ on the processes of partnership formation and family building (Jamieson et al., 2010).
  • The Centre for Reproduction Research Marks Endometriosis Awareness Week
    The Centre for Reproduction Research Marks Endometriosis Awareness Week Law, Caroline Full article: Affecting approximately 2-10% of women of reproductive age, endometriosis can cause debilitating pain, problems with fertility and have a devastating effect on the lives of women with the condition and those around them. As we mark Endometriosis Awareness Week 2018 (3-11 March), we consider how we can continue to raise awareness and improve the care and support of those affected by the condition. The Centre for Reproduction Research has been studying endometriosis for several years; our work includes the ENDOCUL study, which examines the ways the condition affects women from Black and Minority Ethnic groups and how cultural barriers might prevent women from receiving appropriate care, and our ESRC-funded ENDOPART study. This latter study demonstrated the complex and multifaceted effects the condition can have on not only women, but also partners and couple relationships. In partnership with leading UK charity Endometriosis UK, this research led to the development of couple-focused resources including online information and support (written text and a film) and a support group session. Our current research activity now involves investigating endometriosis specialist nursing and how this can be better developed to meet women’s needs. If you have not heard of endometriosis you are not alone. Public awareness of the condition is low and many women still suffer for years before getting a diagnosis. The condition occurs when the endometrium – the lining of the uterus – grows outside the uterus, such as in the ovaries, fallopian tubes or elsewhere in the pelvis. It might also grow on the bladder or bowel, or in some cases on other organs such as the liver or lungs. This can cause inflammation and pain, as well as adhesions and cysts. Nobody knows exactly why some women get endometriosis, and there is no definitive cure. Common symptoms include chronic pelvic pain, heavy and painful periods, fatigue, pain during sex and fertility problems. A range of treatments are available to relieve symptoms, including analgesics, hormonal treatments, and surgery. However, these treatments may cause side effects, and are often are only partially effective, or only effective in the short term. As such, finding an effective way of managing and treating the condition is an ongoing battle for many women. A particularly enigmatic condition, the ‘gold standard’ for diagnosis is via a laparoscopy – keyhole surgery through the abdomen – and many women experience huge delays in getting a diagnosis (our review of research[1] suggests the average delay between symptom onset and diagnosis can range from 5 to 8.9 years). Thinking that their pain is normal, or that they are simply unlucky rather than unwell, women often refrain from visiting their GP or are embarrassed to do so. Furthermore, when women do pursue investigation, whilst some report receiving excellent care, others report having their symptoms trivialised, normalised or dismissed by GPs who have little knowledge of the condition. A condition of much uncertainty[2], endometriosis also affects all women differently: some women with endometriosis have few or no symptoms, whereas others experience debilitating pain and find that endometriosis affects their ability to work, socialise, and have relationships and children. In addition, the severity of symptoms does not correlate to the stage of the disease (determined by factors as location, extent, and depth of endometriosis). As such, campaigning organisations, healthcare providers and health researchers continue to ask, how can we better improve diagnosis and support for women with endometriosis? On Wednesday 7 March we hosted a wellbeing seminar ‘Living with Endometriosis: Understanding its Impact and Management’, open to all De Montfort University staff and students. Chaired by our Centre Director, Prof Nicky Hudson, we were honoured to have Cathy Dean, an Endometriosis Clinical Nurse Specialist at The Portland Hospital, London, deliver the seminar, discussing what endometriosis is, signs and symptoms, issues with diagnosis, treatment options, and support and care for women with the condition. Following this Caroline Law, Research Fellow with the Centre, discussed the social impacts the condition can have – particularly on working lives, education and study, and having children. Questions and discussion focused on how women can access effective treatment given the variance in care across the UK, and how the new NICE guidelines Endometriosis: Diagnosis and Management should be implemented in practice – particularly what this will mean for women in terms of accessing both diagnosis and appropriate care. Great strides have been made in recent years towards increasing awareness of endometriosis. Well-known actors such as Lena Dunham of ‘Girls’ as well as ‘Star Wars’ actor Daisy Ridley have spoken honestly and publicly about their battle with the condition. 2017 also saw our research being showcased on BBC Radio 5 Live and BBC Radio 4 Women’s Hour, as well as the publication of the first endometriosis NICE guidelines on the condition. Endometriosis UK continue to do outstanding work in supporting those affected by the condition, and advocating for improved diagnosis procedures and better management. Within the Centre we now look forward to pursuing future research opportunities to ultimately help improve the quality of life of women with endometriosis and those around them. More information about our research can be found here. Links to resources and patient information provided by Endometriosis UK can also be found here. [1] Culley, L, Law, C, Hudson, N, Denny, E, Mitchell, H, Baumgarten, M, Raine-Fenning, N (2013) The social and psychological impact of endometriosis on women’s lives: a critical narrative review, Hum Reprod Update, 19, 6, 625-639. [2] Denny, E (2009) ‘I never know from one day to another how I will feel’: pain and uncertainty in women with endometriosis, Qual Health Res, 19, 7, 985–995.
  • Men, delayed childbearing and age-related fertility decline
    Men, delayed childbearing and age-related fertility decline Law, Caroline Full text: While media reports regularly remind us of women's biological clocks and warn of the dangers of women leaving it 'too late' to have children, until recently little attention has been paid to the role of men in timing when to have children, and the effect of age on male fertility. However, July 2017 saw a surge of interest in this in mainstream media, following evidence from the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School presented at the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology's (ESHRE) annual conference. Findings from a study of 18,802 IVF cycles suggest that amongst couples undergoing the procedure, for men over 35 increasing age was associated with lower cumulative incidence of live birth. Outlets including The Guardian, the BBC (including BBC Radio 4) and BioNews picked up on these findings, bringing this discussion into the public domain. The Guardian and the BBC also reported findings from a systematic review, from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, of recent trends in sperm counts, which reported a decline in sperm concentration and count between 1971 and 22053. Thus the accepted wisdom that men can continue to have children into later life, easily and without consequence, has been called into question. In some articles, authors blame men's lack of awareness of age-related fertility decline, and lazy or glib attitudes towards having children, either explicitly or implicitly. Alongside this, coverage of recent research (Inhorn, Baldwin, Gurten) on egg freezing suggests that women freeze their eggs because they are not able to find a suitable male partner; there is a 'dearth of eligible men' wherein the number of qualified, professional women is not matched by an equivalent number of qualified, professional men. These accounts have added weight to the idea that men's roles in relationships, in starting a family, and in when to start a family are of crucial importance. Prior to this, to a large extent media attention had mirrored social science research on the topic: the minimal focus on men being greatly outweighed by a focus on women. This is also reflected in our national data collection: while the Office for National Statistics (ONS) gathers data on women's ages at the birth of their first child, this is not the case for men; for men, a distinction between first and subsequent children is not made, as it is for women. Consequently, while we can track changes in the age at which women are becoming mothers, we cannot track trends in when men are becoming fathers. Nonetheless, ONS data does suggest that the average age of men at the birth of any children has risen from 31.1 in 1993 to 33.2 in 20312. Research suggests that the majority of men want children, and being an 'older' father isn't something most desire. Men identify certain pre-conditions as necessary before embarking on parenthood, including being in a good relationship with the right partner and someone whom they feel would make a good parent; having financial and material security; and feeling emotionally and psychologically ready. Men's aspirations to be both the breadwinner, as well as a nurturing and involved father, also create added pressures. However, scientific evidence about the impact of age on men's fertility, while still contested, appears to be a growing. A 20312 systematic review of 90 studies identified age-associated declines in semen volume, percentage motility, progressive motility, normal morphology and unfragmented cells. Elsewhere, evidence suggests that advanced paternal age is also linked with increased risk of infertility, miscarriage and various pathological conditions in offspring. In addition, the 2013 NICE fertility guidelines reported that there was now evidence of declining male fertility with increasing age, for the first time. All these developments point towards the need to take greater consideration of the role of men in reproductive timings (and in whether, when and why women opt to freeze their eggs) and related research – both social and medical. If age does indeed play a role in men's fertility health, this needs to be taken into account in research, policy and practice. Finally, we need to question why women's behaviours and reproductive 'choices' are routinely held to account in delayed childbearing, not men's; a greater focus on men will go some way to redress the balance. In 2013 Reproductive Biomedicine Online published a special issue on age-related fertility decline, beginning with the piece 'Cassandra's prophecy: why we need to tell the women of the future about age-related fertility decline and 'delayed' childbearing'. In the lively debate that followed, authors considered whether 'telling' women is sufficient, and grappled with how this complex issue can be addressed. Perhaps the recent media interest in men, age and fertility is a sign that the time for a full and frank debate about talking to men about age-related fertility decline – both women's and men's - will soon be upon us.
  • A qualitative study of the impact of endometriosis on male partners
    A qualitative study of the impact of endometriosis on male partners Culley, Lorraine; Law, Caroline; Hudson, Nicky; Mitchell, H.; Raine-Fenning, N.; Denny, E. STUDY QUESTION What is the impact of endometriosis on male partners of women with the condition? SUMMARY ANSWER Endometriosis significantly impacts men across several life domains and can negatively impact emotional well-being. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Endometriosis has been shown to negatively impact women's quality of life and may strain intimate relationships. Little is known about the impact on male partners. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION The ENDOPART study was a cross-sectional, qualitative study of 22 women with endometriosis and their male partners (n = 44) in the UK (2012–2013). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Inclusion criteria: laparoscopic diagnosis of endometriosis; the presence of symptoms for at least a year; partners living together. Data were collected via face to face, semi structured interviews with partners interviewed separately. Data were analysed thematically, assisted by NVivo 10. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Men reported that endometriosis affected many life domains including sex and intimacy, planning for and having children, working lives and household income. It also required them to take on additional support tasks and roles. Endometriosis also had an impact on men's emotions, with responses including helplessness, frustration, worry and anger. The absence of professional or wider societal recognition of the impact on male partners, and a lack of support available to men, results in male partners having a marginalized status in endometriosis care. LIMITATIONS REASONS FOR CAUTION Self-selection of participants may have resulted in a sample representing those with more severe symptoms. Couples included are in effect ‘survivors’ in relationship terms, therefore, findings may underestimate the contribution of endometriosis to relationship breakdown. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS The study extends knowledge about the impact of endometriosis on relationships, which thus far has been drawn largely from studies with women, by providing new insights about how this condition affects male partners. Healthcare practitioners need to take a more couple-centred, biopsychosocial approach toward the treatment of endometriosis, inclusive of partners and relationship issues. The findings demonstrate a need for information and support resources aimed at partners and couples. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) This study was funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (reference ES/J003662/1). The authors have no conflicts of interest. Open Access article
  • Reproductive timings: exploring men's perceptions and intentions – work in progress
    Reproductive timings: exploring men's perceptions and intentions – work in progress Law, Caroline
  • Researching reproduction with men: philosophical and methodological challenges
    Researching reproduction with men: philosophical and methodological challenges Law, Caroline Social science research into reproduction is a vibrant and growing field of scholarly activity. However, the majority of research is conducted with women and focusses on women’s lives. This reinforces the notion that reproduction is located primarily in the female domain and overemphasis female responsibility, leaving men’s behaviours relatively neglected. Several scholars have argued for an expansion of reproduction research to include a focus on men and men’s experiences (Culley et al., 2013; Lohan, 2015). However, despite a growing interest in men’s experiences in recent years, the majority of reproduction research involving men has been concerned with fatherhood itself, leaving numerous other aspects of the reproduction process overlooked including pre-conception desires for parenthood and planning (Morison, 2013; Lohan, 2015). Furthermore, methodological literature on researching reproduction with men remains sparse. This paper presents early reflections from a PhD study into childless men’s perceptions and intentions regarding reproductive timings. It considers methodological aspects in the context of the first phase of recruitment and data collection, and will explore two main issues. Firstly, recruiting men for reproduction research can present challenges. As reproduction is traditionally considered a female domain, men may be disinclined to take part in such research and may not identify it as relevant to their lives. Furthermore, studying the pre-conception stages of reproductive planning with men who are presumed fertile necessitates the recruitment of individuals who are not a unified group and who cannot be recruited via a specific organisation or network. This paper explores these challenges, as well as strategies evoked to address them, and discusses resulting dilemmas, opportunities and concerns, particularly regarding recruitment through personal networks. Secondly, the paper addresses the issue of gender in the research process. Participants and researchers are gendered individuals and the research interview a gendered encounter, which has consequences for the collection, analysis and interpretation of data. Past literature suggests that female researcher-male participant interviews may be perceived as opportunities and/or threats, may provoke anxieties and defensiveness and may result in heterosexual displays of behaviour (Hearn, 2013). The paper reflects upon the first phase of data collection and on the performance of gender within interviews. It considers the implications of this for the study specifically and for reproduction research more generally, particularly in relation to feminist methodology. Extending reproduction research to better include a focus on men and men’s lives requires a reflection of the methodological challenges inherent in such research and discussion regarding how these can be addressed. This paper aims to contribute to discussions regarding the complexities regarding undertaking reproduction research with men, and to offer a detailed consideration of some of the associated challenges, opportunities and dilemmas.

 Click here for a full listing of Caroline Law's publications and outputs.

Research interests/expertise

  • Sociology of health, illness and medicine
  • Infertility and reproduction
  • Men, men's health, masculinities and reproduction
  • Chronic illness
  • Disability discrimination and disability equality
  • Equality and diversity
  • Adult learning and the adult learning workforce
  • Discourse analysis

Areas of teaching

  • Research methods
  • Gender and health

Qualifications

  • BSc Sociology, first class honours, University of Bath, 2002; recipient of Stephen Cotgrove departmental prize
  • MSc Social Research Methods, distinction, Open University, 2011

Conference attendance

Selected papers:

Law, C. 'Men, reproductive timings and procreative responsibility', paper presented to the Centre for the Study of Women and Gender Graduate Seminar Series, University of Warwick, 6 March 2019.

 

Law, C. 'Men and reproductive timings: perceptions, intentions and future imaginaries', paper presented to the conference Remaking Reproduction: The Global Politics of Reproductive Technologies, University of Cambridge, 27-19 June 2018.

Law, C. 'Reproductive Masculinity: an explanatory concept to enhance understanding of men and reproductive timings', paper presented to the British Sociological Association Annual Conference, Northumbria University, UK, 10-12 April 2018.

Law, C. 'Men and delayed parenthood: a qualitative study of men’s views regarding the ‘right time’ to have children', paper presented (invited talk) to the ESRC Centre for Population Change seminar series, University of Southampton, UK, 22 March 2018.

Law, C. ‘Researching reproduction with men: philosophical and methodological challenges’, paper to be presented to the Social Studies of Reproduction: Techniques, Methods and Reflexive Movements stream of the International Sociological Association’s Research Committee on Logic and Methodology (RC33) 9th International Conference on Social Science Methodology, University of Leicester, UK, 11-16 September 2016.

Law, C. ‘Critical Studies of Men and Masculinities (CSM) and reproduction research with men: rationale, limitations and opportunities’, paper presented to the Feminism and Gender in the Social Sciences Symposium, De Montfort University, Leicester, 17 June 2016.

Law, C. ‘What do men perceive to be the ‘right time’ for parenthood? Past literature and future explorations’, paper presented to the Postponing Childbirth, Extending Fertility? Biotechnologies and the Transformation of Reproductive Life Symposium, De Montfort University, Leicester, 12-13 May 2016.

Culley, L, Hudson, N, Mitchell, H, Law, C, Denny, E, Raine-Fenning, N. ‘The impact of endometriosis on the intimate lives of heterosexual couples’, presentation delivered at the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology course: Sexual functioning in women dealing with infertility and/or endometriosis, Leuven, Belgium, 24-25 September 2015.

Hudson, N, Culley, L, Mitchell, H, Law, C, Denny, E, Raine-Fenning, N. ‘Men living with endometriosis: perceptions and experiences of male partners of women with the condition’, paper presented to the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology Annual Meeting, Lisbon, Portugal, 14-17 June 2015.

Mitchell, H, Hudson, N, Culley, L, Law, C, Denny, E, Raine-Fenning, N. ‘Treatment decision-making and support needs in heterosexual couples living with endometriosis’, paper presented to the British Society of Gynaecological Endoscopy (BSGE) Annual Scientific Meeting, London, UK, 4-5 June 2015.

Mitchell, H, Culley, L, Hudson, N, Law, C, Denny, E, Baumgarten, M Raine-Fenning, N. ‘Pain management decisions amongst couples living with endometriosis’, paper presented to the 2nd European Congress on Endometriosis, Berlin, Germany, 28-30 November 2013.

Law, C, Culley, L, Hudson, N, Mitchell, H, Denny, E, Raine-Fenning, N. ‘Endometriosis: Improving the wellbeing of couples: study findings and recommendations’, invited talk delivered to Endometriosis UK Annual General Meeting and Information Day, Coventry, UK, 19 October 2013.

Law, C, Culley, L, Hudson, N, Denny, E, Mitchell H ‘Endometriosis, biographical appraisals and the couple unit’, paper presented to the British Sociological Association's 2013 Medical Sociology Annual Conference, University of York, UK, 11-13 September 2013.

Hudson, N, Culley, L, Law, C, Mitchell, H, Denny, E ‘Conducting dyadic research in chronic illness: men, women and endometriosis’, paper presented to the British Sociological Association's 2013 Medical Sociology Annual Conference, University of York, UK, 11-13 September 2013.

Hudson, N, Culley, C, Law, C, Denny, E, Mitchell, H, Baumgarten, M, Raine-Fenning, N 'Improving the wellbeing of couples living with endometriosis', poster presented to the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology Annual Meeting, London, UK, 7-10 July 2013.

Law, C, Culley, L, Hudson, N, Denny, E, Baumgarten, M, Raine-Fenning, N, Mitchell, H ‘‘I don’t know what sex is like without pain’: the impact of endometriosis on sexual relationships in couples’, paper presented to the Royal College of Nursing (RCN) International Nursing Research Conference 2013, Belfast, UK, 20-22 March 2013.

Key research outputs

Law, C (2019) Men on the margins? Reflections on recruiting and engaging men in reproduction research, Methodological Innovations.

 

Hudson, N, Law, C, Culley, L, Mitchell, H, Denny, E, Raine-Fenning,
N (2018) Conducting dyadic, relational research about endometriosis: A
reflexive account of methods, ethics and data analysis, Health.

 

Culley, L, Law, C, Hudson, N, Mitchell, H, Denny, E, Raine-Fenning, N (2017) A Qualitative Study of the Impact of Endometriosis on Male PartnersHuman Reproduction, 32, 8, 1667-1673.

Hudson, N, Culley, L, Law, C, Mitchell, H, Denny, E, Raine-Fenning, N (2016) ‘We needed to change the mission statement of the marriage’: biographical disruptions, appraisals and revisions amongst couples living with endometriosis, Sociology of Health and Illness, 38, 5, 721–735.

Norton, W, Crawshaw, M, Hudson, N, Culley, L, Law, C. (2015) A survey of Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) fertility clinics’ approach to surrogacy arrangements, Reproductive Biomedicine Online, 31, 3, 327–338. 

Nightingale, C, Law, C and Webb, H (2015) Academic teaching staff: developing equality and diversity skills, knowledge and values London: Equality Challenge Unit.

Culley, L. Hudson, N. Mitchell, H. Law, C. (2014) The impact of endometriosis on planning for and having children: findings from the Endopart Study, Journal of Fertility Counselling 21 2, 22-2.

Culley, L, Law, C, Hudson, N, Denny, E, Mitchell, H, Baumgarten, M, Raine-Fenning, N. (2013) The social and psychological impact of endometriosis on women's lives: a critical narrative review, Human Reproduction Update, 19, 6, 625-639.

Culley, L, Hudson, N, Mitchell, H, Law, C, Denny, E, Raine-Fenning, N (2013) Endometriosis: Improving the Wellbeing of Couples, Leicester: De Montfort University.

Ewens, D., Nighingale, C., Law, C., Challenger, S. and Byford, K. (2011) Enabling Equality: Furthering Disability Equality for Staff in Higher Education, London: Equality Challenge Unit.

Law, C. and Ewens, D. (2010) Making the Journey to Learning and Work, Mental Health and Social Inclusion 14, 2, 28-34.

Law, C. (2009) The Care Programme Approach and Adult Learning, A Life in the Day 13, 2, 13-15. 

Worrall, C. and Law, C. (2009) The North West Further Education Project: The Mental Health and Well-being of Learners aged 14-19, Education and Health 27, 4, 86-90.

Externally funded research grants information

Symposium: Postponing Childbirth, Extending Fertility? Biotechnologies and the Transformation of Reproductive Life. Wellcome Trust. This two-day international symposium brought together key authors, researchers and other stakeholders to explore and reflect on trends regarding the postponement of childbirth and the development of associated fertility extension technologies, exploring themes of age, time, gender, reproduction and technologies. May 2016. Grant holders: Kylie Baldwin, Dr Nolwenn Bühler, Prof Lorraine Culley, Dr Irenee Daly, Dr Cathy Herbrand, Dr Nicky Hudson, Caroline Law, De Montfort University.

Postgraduate Conference: The Sociology of Technologically Mediated Reproduction. British Sociological Association. This conferences brought together postgraduate students and early career researchers to explore empirical and theoretical developments regarding assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) and their intersection with gender, technology, kinship, commerce and politics. May 2014. Grant holders: Kylie Baldwin, Caroline Law, Christina Weis, Wendy Norton, De Montfort University.

Supporting the development of equality and diversity skills, knowledge and values in academic teaching staff in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). Equality Challenge Unit. The overall aim of this research project was to explore the approaches that HEIs in England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales are taking to develop the equality and diversity skills, knowledge and values of academic teaching staff and to assess the effectiveness of these approaches. 2013-2014. Research Assistant. Grant holders: Dr Christine Nightingale, Caroline Law, De Montfort University.

ENDOPART: Improving the well-being of couples. UK Economic and Social Research Council: ES/J003662/1. Qualitative study to explore the impact of endometriosis on couples and to contribute to improving the well-being of people living with endometriosis by providing an evidence base for improving couple support. 2012-2013. Research Assistant. Principal Investigator: Prof Lorraine Culley, De Montfort University. Co-investigators: Dr Nicky Hudson, Dr Helene Mitchell, De Montfort University; Professor Elaine Denny, Birmingham City University; Dr Nick Raine-Fenning, University of Nottingham.

Embedding structured self management education programmes for Type 2 diabetes in a multi-ethnic primary care setting: developing key areas to support a NIHR Programme Grant submission. NIHR Programme Development Grant: RP-DG-1210-10183. Exploration of approaches to implementation and embedding of structured diabetes education in primary care. 2012-2013. Research Assistant to Work Package 3. Grant holder: Professor Melanie Davies, University Hospitals of Leicester.

Internally funded research project information

ENDOPART2: Developing a Knowledge Exchange Partnership and Improving Support in Endometriosis. De Montfort University Higher Education Innovation Fund. Building on the success of the ENDOPART study, this project comprised partnership working with leading charity Endometriosis UK to develop support resources for couples living with endometriosis including a support session for delivery at Endometriosis UK support groups, two films and an online information resource. 2015-16. Grant holders: Dr Nicky Hudson, Prof Lorraine Culley, Dr Helene Mitchell, Caroline Law, Wendy Norton, De Montfort University.

Enhancing Dissemination, Impact and Networking in Reproduction Research. De Montfort University School of Applied Social Sciences Research Fund. This funding supported various dissemination, impact and networking activities including further dissemination and impact activity arising from the ENDOPART study, as well as the international symposium Postponing Childbirth, Extending Fertility? Biotechnologies and the Transformation of Reproductive Life. 2015-16. Grant holders: Dr Nicky Hudson, Dr Cathy Herbrand, Caroline Law, Dr Helene Mitchell, Prof Lorraine Culley, De Montfort University. 

European Network for Research on Men, Infertility and Assisted Conception. De Montfort University Revolving Investment Fund for Research. A project to create an international multi-disciplinary network of leading academics and healthcare professionals working in the field of men, infertility and assisted conception. 2011-2012. Research Assistant.  Grant holders: Prof Lorraine Culley, Dr Nicky Hudson, Wendy Norton, De Montfort University; Dr Maria Lohan, Professor Sheena Lewis, Queen’s University Belfast.

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