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Professor Dave Walsh

Job: Professor in Criminal Investigation

Faculty: Business and Law

School/department: Leicester De Montfort Law School

Address: De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester, LE1 9BH

T: 0116 207 8047

E: dave.walsh@dmu.ac.uk

W: https://www.dmu.ac.uk

 

Personal profile

Dave joined the Law School at DMU in 2018, He specializes in the teaching and research pertaining to criminal investigation and the policing of modern slavery.

Dave’s research focuses on the investigative interviewing of victims (including children), witnesses and suspects, as well as decision making of investigators. He welcomes enquiries from those interested in undertaking PhD research in this area  

He has published extensively these areas. He was a founding member of the International Investigative Interviewing Research group (see www.iiirg.org). Among his many current projects include how the pandemic has affected policing practice as it applies to the interviewing of witnesses.

He is also working with the police nationally and locally along with policy makers in the area of modern slavery, including examining the policing of 'county lines' cases. 

He is also interested in the policing of organised crime. 

 

Research group affiliations

International Investigative Interviewing Research Group

Publications and outputs

Published Journal articles

Shawyer, A. & Walsh, D. (2007). Fraud and PEACE: Investigative Interviewing and Fraud Investigation Crime Prevention and Community Safety. 9, 102-117.

Walsh, D. & Milne, R. (2007) Giving PEACE a Chance. Public Administration .Vol 85 No2 525-540.

Walsh, D. & Milne, R. (2008) Keeping the PEACE? A study of investigative interviewing practices in the public sector. Legal and Criminological Psychology. 13 39-57.

Walsh, D. & Oxburgh, G. (2008) Investigative interviewing of suspects: Historical and contemporary developments in research. British Psychological Society: Forensic Update. 92 Winter 2007/2008 41-45.

Walsh, D. & Bull, R. (2010a). Interviewing suspects of fraud: An analysis of interviewing skills. Journal of Psychiatry and Law, 38, 99-135

Walsh, D. & Bull, R. (2010b). The interviewing of suspects by non-police agencies: What's effective? What is effective! Legal and Criminological Psychology, 15, 305-321

Walsh, D. & Bull, R. (2010c). Know your rights? A study comparing fraud investigators approaches to informing suspects of their rights and ensuring they are understood and observed. Cambrian Law Review, 41, 24-39.

Oxburgh, G.E., Walsh, D., & Milne, R. (2011a). The importance of applied research in investigative interviewing: A real-life perspective. Editorial to the special edition of the Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, 8, 105-109.

Walsh, D. & Bull, R. (2011b). Benefit fraud investigative interviewing: A self-report study of investigation professionals’ beliefs concerning practice. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, 8, 131-148.

Walsh, D. & Bull, R. (2011c). Still giving PEACE a Chance? An examination of the beliefs, attitudes and perceptions of benefit fraud investigation professionals Social Psychology Review, 13, 1-15

Walsh, D. & Bull, R. (2012a) How do interviewers attempt to overcome suspects’ denials? Psychiatry, Psychology, and Law, 19, 151-168.

Walsh, D. & Bull, R. (2012b). Examining rapport in investigative interviews with suspects: Does its building and maintenance work? Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 27, 73-84.

Walsh, D., King, M, & Neville, A. (2012c) Formulating future collaborative research agendas for criminal investigation. Investigative Interviewing: Research and Practice.

Walsh, D. (2013) Supervisory and self-evaluation of investigative interviewing performance, Investigative Interviewing: Research and Practice, 5, 113

Walsh, D. & Bull, R. (2015). The association between evidence disclosure, questioning strategies, interview skills, and interview outcomes, Psychology, Crime and Law.21, 661-680.

Walsh, D., Milne, R., & Bull, R. (2016) One way or another? Investigators’ beliefs concerning evidence disclosure in interviews with suspects in England and Wales. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 31, 127-140

Dando, C., Walsh, D., & Brierley, R., (2016). The psychology of coercion in human trafficking. Public Library of Science 1, 11, 1-13

Areh, I., Walsh, D., & Bull, R. (2017). Police interrogation in Slovenia. Psychology, Crime and Law, 22, 405-419

Minhas, R., Walsh, D., & Bull, R. (2017). The development of the IIPSS scale, measuring prejudice in interviews. Police Practice and Research, 18, 132-145

Walsh, D., King, M. & Griffiths, A. (2017). An examination of the self-evaluation of performance in investigative interviews. Psychology, Crime and Law, 23, 647-665

Pajon Moreno, L., & Walsh, D. (2017). Gender differences in eyewitness testimony in cases of violent and non-violent criminal incidents. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law ,24, 923-935 https://doi.org/10.1080/13218719.2017.1327313

Childs, C. & Walsh, D. (2017).  Rapport strategies in interviews with children. Journal of Pragmatics, 121, 188-201, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2017.10.013

Minhas, R. & Walsh, D., & Bull, R. (2017) Muslim suspects, their lawyers, and the police: Differing perspectives of interviews? Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism,12, 158-174 10.1080/18335330.2017.1355103

Walsh, D., Ormerod, T., & Dando, C. (2018). Triage decision making by welfare fraud investigators. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 7, 82-91. doi:10.1016/j.jarmac.2018.01.002

Kim, J., Walsh, D., Bull, R. & Bergstrom, H. (2018) Planning ahead? Factors influencing investigators’ attitudes towards planning for interviews with suspects. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 33, 158-174 10.1007/s11896-017-9243-z.1007/s11896-017-9243-z7--z

Cayli, B., Hodgson, P., & Walsh, D. (2018). The rule of law and social unrest: Exploring violence in social protests and riots. Comparative Sociology, 17, 159-186

https://dx.doi.org/10.1163/15691330-12341455

Griffiths, A., & Walsh, D. (2018). Investigators’ reflective portfolios: A reflection of their actual investigation skills?  Psychology, Crime and Law,24, 433-450

https://doi.org/10.1080/1068316X.2017.1390115

Minhas, R. & Walsh, D. (2018) Influence of racial stereotypes on investigative decision-making in criminal investigations: A qualitative comparative analysis, Cogent Social Sciences, 4, 1-18 1538588 https://doi.org/10.1080/23311886.2018.1538588

https://doi-org.proxy.library.dmu.ac.uk/10.1093/police/pay031

Childs, C. & Walsh, D. (2018). Paradoxical invitations: challenges in soliciting more information from child witnesses. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 51, 363-378 https://doi.org/10.1080/08351813.2018.1524561

Wilson, L., & Walsh, D. (2019). Striving for impartiality: Emotional bias in interpreter-assisted investigations. Pragmatics and society, 10, 12-151. DOI: 10.1075/ps.00018.wil

Pajon, L. & Walsh, D. (2020) Towards a model of the criminal investigation of human trafficking crimes. Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, 14, 493–511, https://doi-org.proxy.library.dmu.ac.uk/10.1093/police/pay031

Denault, V., Plusquellec, P., Jupe, L. M., St-Yves, M., Dunbar, N. E., Hartwig, M., Walsh, D…van Koppen, P. J. (2020). The analysis of nonverbal communication: The dangers of pseudoscience in security and justice contexts. Anuario de Psicología Jurídica, 30, 1-2. doi: 10.5093/apj2019a9.

Walsh, D., Oxburgh, G., & Amurun, T. (2020) Interpreter-Assisted Interviews: Examining Investigators’ and Interpreters’ Views on Their Practice. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 35, 318-27 DOI: 10.1007/s11896-020-09366-2

Areh, I, & Walsh, D. (in press), Identifying differences among eyewitnesses. European Journal of Criminal Justice and Criminal investigation

Nunan, J., Stanier, I., Milne, R., Shawyer, A., & Walsh, D. (in press). Eliciting human intelligence: Police source handlers’ perceptions and experiences of rapport during CHIS interactions. Psychiatry, Psychology, and Law doi.org/10.1080/13218719.2020.1734978

Baker-Eck, B., Bull, R., & Walsh, D. (in press). Investigative empathy: A strength scale of empathy based on European police perspectives. Psychiatry, Psychology, & Law.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13218719.2020.1751333

Baker-Eck, B., Bull, R., & Walsh, D. (in press). Investigative empathy: Five types of cognitive empathy in a field study of investigative interviews with suspects of sexual offences. Investigative Interviewing: Research and Practice.

Nunan, J., Stanier, I., Milne, R., Shawyer, A., Walsh, D., & May, B. (in press). The impact of rapport on intelligence yield: Police source handler telephone interactions with covert human intelligence sources. Psychiatry, Psychology, & Law. DOI:10.1080/13218719.2020.1784807

Nunan, J., Stanier, I., Milne, R., Shawyer, A., & Walsh, D. (in press) Source handler perceptions of the interviewing processes employed with informants. Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism, 15, 244-262. https://doi.org/10.1080/18335330.2020.182006

Nunan, J., Stanier, I., Milne, R., Shawyer, A., Walsh, D. (in press)Source handler telephone interactions with Covert Human Intelligence Sources: An exploration of question types and intelligence yield. Applied Cognitive Psychology. dx.doi.org/10.1002/acp.3726

Minhas, R. & Walsh, D. (in press). Prejudicial stereotyping and police interviewing practices in England: An exploration of legal representatives’ perceptions. Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism. DoI: 10.1080/18335330.2021.1889016

Fenia, F., Blades, M., & Walsh, D. (in press) The effect of the number of interviewers on children’s testimonies. Psychology, Crime & Law.  10.1080/1068316X.2021.1909017. 

Minhas, R., & Walsh, D. (in press) The role of prejudicial stereotypes in the formation of suspicion: an examination of operational procedures into stop and search practices. International Journal of Police Science and Management. 10.1177/14613557211016499

Izotovas, A., Kelly, C. E., & Walsh, D. (in press). The Domains of PEACE: Examining interviews with suspected sex offenders. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology. 10.1007/s11896-021-09465-8

 Books and book chapters

Walsh, D. & Bull, R (2013) The investigation and investigative interviewing of benefit fraud suspects in the UK: Historical and contemporary perspectives. In B.S. Cooper, D. Griesel, & M. Ternes (eds.) Applied issues in investigative interviewing. Eyewitness memory and credibility assessment (pp 33-58). New York: Springer.  

Brooks, G., Walsh, D., & Lewis, C. (2013). Preventing corruption: Investigation, enforcement and governance. Palgrave Macmillan

Walsh, D. & van der Steen, K (2014) Strategic and tactical disclosing of evidence in interviews with suspects: Implications for the Belgian police. In R. Schellingen, R. and N. Scholton (eds) Investigative interviewing in Belgium (pp. 183-198). Belgium: Kluwer

Walsh, D., O’Callaghan, S. & Milne, R. (2016). Police interrogation in the USA. In D. Farrington, & A. Kapardis (Eds.) The psychology of crime, policing and the courts (pp. 119-135). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,

Walsh, D., Oxburgh, G., Redlich, A., & Myklebust, T. (editors) (2015) International developments in investigative interviewing and interrogations, Volumes I (Witnesses and Victims) & II (Suspects). London: Routledge

Evans, J., Shaffer, S., & Walsh, D. (2020). Interpreters in investigative interviewing contexts. In R. Bull, & I. Blandon- Gitlin (Eds.) The Routledge international Handbook of Legal and Investigative Psychology (pp. 133-148). Routledge: London    

Key research outputs

 

 

Research interests/expertise

Investigative interviewing of victims, witnesses and suspects

Policing of Modern Slavery 

Businesses' responses to Modern slavery legislation

Policing of Serious and Organised Crime  

Areas of teaching

Criminal Investigation

Modern Slavery

Qualifications

PhD, MSc, MBA, FHEA

Honours and awards

Global Professor in Criminology. Leuven (October 2020)

Membership of external committees

Co-lead of the Midlands Anti-slavery Research Collaboration (Midlands ARC) representing all 18 Midlands Universities. 

Projects

Innovative approaches to  countering serious and organised crime 

Examining the approaches in Japan to the interviewing of vulnerable suspects 

Examining changes to the perpetration of County Lines following the Covid-19 pandemic 

Examining the interviewing of witnesses and suspects following the Covid-19 pandemic 

Examining how the business sector have responded to Modern Slavery legislation

Developing the investigative skills of financial accountants and auditors 

 

Conference attendance

Investigative Interviewing in non-police agencies: 2nd International Investigative Interviewing Conference: University of Portsmouth. 3-7th July 2006

Interviewing benefit fraud suspects: European Investigative Interviewing Conference: University of Teesside 2nd-3rd April 2007

What’s effective in fraud interviews with suspects? British Psychological Society’s Division of Forensic Psychology, University of York. 23rd- 25th July 2007

Interviewing suspects: What’s effective? What is effective! Poster presented at the 3rd International Investigative Interviewing Conference, Quebec. 16-18th June 2008.

Experiencing Investigative Interviews: Attitudes, Perceptions, Reality. 18th Conference of the European Association of Psychology and Law, Maastricht University, 2-5 July 2008

Power talks in interviews with suspects. 2nd Conference of the International Investigative Interviewing Research Group, University of Teesside, 14-16th April 2009

Eliciting true confessions 19th Conference of the European Association of Psychology and Law, Sorrento, 2nd-5th September 2009.

Does collaboration affect the construction of eyewitness remembering. 19th Conference of the European Association of Psychology and Law, Sorrento, 2nd-5th September 2009.

Examining the effects of tactics, attitudes, weight of evidence, and skills in interviews with suspects. 20th Conference of the European Association of Psychology and Law, Gothenburg 15th -18th June. 2010

Tactics and confessions 3rd Conference of the International Investigative Interviewing Research Group, Stavern, Norway 21st -24th June, 2010.

Exploring rapport in interviews with benefit fraud suspects: Building and maintenance works! 4th International Investigative Interviewing Conference. Brussels 29th -1st July 2010.

Is there an association between rapport building and maintenance and the interview outcome? 4th Conference of the International Investigative Interviewing Research Group, Dundee, 1st -3rd June 2011.

Interrogating suspects in the United States: Introducing a field study. 21st Conference of the European Association of Psychology and Law, Nicosia, 13-16th April 2012.

Questioning and evidence disclosure; The QED of investigative interviewing? 5th Conference of the International Investigative Interviewing Research Group, Toronto 28-31st May 2012

One way or another: Beliefs of investigators concerning evidence disclosure in interviews. 6th Conference of the International Investigative Interviewing Research Group, July 2013

Evidence disclosure strategies in interviews with suspects. American Psychology and Law Society Conference, New Orleans, March 2014

Case complexity determines the hypothesis testing strategy used by experienced investigators American Psychology and Law Society Conference, New Orleans, March 2014

Getting better all the time? 7th Conference of the International Investigative Interviewing Research Group. Lausanne, Switzerland

Rapport building with children who allege sexual abuse: 7th Conference of the International Investigative Interviewing Research Group, Lausanne, Switzerland. 2014

Interviewing children: Overcoming barriers to revelation with empathy and rapport. American Psychology and Law Society Conference, San Diego, March 2015.

Information loss between criminal event and witness statement. 9th Conference of the International Investigative Interviewing Research Group. London: June 2016.

Examining interviews with suspected sex offenders. 26th Conference of European Association of Psychology and Law Mechelen; 2017

Exploring tactics and strategies of interviewers and interviewees American Psychology and Law Society Conference, Memphis, March,2018

Spotting the signs of modern slavery (Key note address) Modern Slavery conference Saint Mary’s University, May 2018

The Business’ Sector’s response to modern slavery (Keynote address) Modern Slavery conference Saint Mary’s University, May 2019

Studying vulnerable interviewees. (Keynote address). Annual conference of the Japanese Psychological Association. September 2019.

Contemporary and future challenges to criminal investigation. Keynote Presentation at the University of Leiden September 2020.

Developments in Investigative Interviewing.  Keynote presentation to the Finnish Police March 2021

 

 

Key articles information

[Add key research outputs information here] 

e.g ‘Outputs, e.g. selected publications’ produced since January 2008

Current research students

Emerald Woodward (1st Supervisor)

Satarupa Ghosh (1st supervisor)

Sara Parr (1st Supervisor)

Heather Powell (2nd Supervisor) 

Gavin Ridley (2nd Supervisor)

Jeremy Robson (2nd Supervisor) 

Externally funded research grants information

Recent research grants awarded

£69,830 (as Co-I) successful July 2018 Home Office: Interviewing vulnerable victims of Cybercrime (as Co-I)

£47,150 (as PI) successful December 2018; ESRC research grant. Interviews in Japan with vulnerable people

£15,660 (as PI) HEIF funding). Innovating a toolkit for businesses to identify risks of exploitations/slavery in their supply chains  

£10,000 (as PI) HEIF funding Establishing where modern slavery risks persist

£177,013 (as Co-I) ESRC funded project examining offenders’ different methods of operating county lines following the Covid-19 outbreak.

£323,453.10 (as Co-I) ESRC funded project examining the interviewing of victims, witnesses and suspects following the response by policing to Covid-19.

£15,000. (as P-I) HEIF funded Project. Examining UK business preparedness for the new immigration rules to avoid risks of labour exploitation

Internally funded research project information

£3,000 DMU award (as PI) to support Joint DMU/East Midlands Police initiative combatting Serious and Organised Crime

Professional esteem indicators

Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts 

Case studies

Modern Slavery : Business and Police responses.  Has led to increased business sector compliance, increased investigations and increased prosecutions and increased awareness as to how to involve other agencies in the investigation of modern slavery 

ORCID number

0000-0003-4950-6830

dave-walsh