Publications

  • Synthetic cannabinoid availability on darknet drug markets—changes during 2016–2017
    Synthetic cannabinoid availability on darknet drug markets—changes during 2016–2017 Scourfield, Andrew; Flick, Catherine; Ross, Jack; Wood, David M.; Thurtle, Natalie; Stellmach, Darryl; Dargan, Paul I. Changes in legislation have affected supply routes of new psychoactive substances such as synthetic cannabinoids with evidence of supply over the darknet. We identified darknet drug markets using an index database and Tor Browser to access markets. We identified SC in product listings using a custom-programmed script. We collected data at bimonthly intervals (August 2016–April 2017). Eleven darknet markets listed SC for sale, the largest number from China, UK, US, Netherlands, and Germany. Formulations available were high purity powder/crystal, smoking preparations and vape preparations. The top five listed compounds from China across the time points were FUB-AMB, ABD-FUBINACA, 5F-NPB-22, MAB-CHMINACA, and NM-2201. 5F-CUMYL-4CN-PINACA was unavailable at early time points but emerged during the study. Cost of high purity formulations from China ranged from 1.3 to 3.1 Euro per gram for quantities ≥1000 g. Europe and North America accounted for 99% smoking preparations predominantly in small packages (<50 g). SC are widely available on the darknet with availability changing over time. High purity formulations are predominantly available from China in quantities up to kilograms with price per gram reducing with increased quantity. Small packages of ready-made smoking mixtures are available from Europe and North America. open access article
  • Is Information Systems a Science? Rejoinder to Five Commentaries
    Is Information Systems a Science? Rejoinder to Five Commentaries McBride, Neil This paper concludes the debate on the nature of the information systems discipline and its academic practice. I initiated the debate in a paper which I questioned the view of information systems as a scientific discipline. Ten information systems academics responded to this initial paper over five separate papers. In this final rejoinder, I critique and respond to those five papers. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Challenging Sociality? An Anthropology of robots, autism and attachment
    Challenging Sociality? An Anthropology of robots, autism and attachment Richardson, Kathleen This book explores the development of humanoid robots for helping children with autism develop social skills and is based on fieldwork in the UK and the USA. Robotic scientists propose that robots can therapeutically help children with autism because there is a “special” affinity between autistic people and mechanical things. I draw attention to the way that people with autism are presented as possessing a machinelike state and I challenge the ways in which mechanical analogies between machines and children with autism are deployed in the robotic sciences. The idea that children with autism have a preference for machines over people was developed by autism experts but is an idea mobilized and put to use in robotics; informing the field of therapeutic robotics. Autism is also seen as a gendered condition, with men considered less “social” and therefore more likely to have the condition. I explore how these experiments in cultivating social skills in children with autism using robots, while focused on a unique subsection, is the model for a new kind of commercially informed human-machine relationship for wider society across the capitalist world where machines can take on the role of the “you” in the interpersonal encounter. To understand this new relationship, I explore the history, psychiatry, clinical studies, perspectives on attachment and critical studies of autism, and the ethics of interpersonal sociality between human beings. This work is in part funded by the British Academy and also by the European Commission DREAM project.
  • Sex Robots: Between Human and Artificial
    Sex Robots: Between Human and Artificial Richardson, Kathleen Despite a surplus of human beings in the world, new estimates total 7 and a half billion, we appear to be at the start of an attachment crisis - a crisis in how human beings make intimate relationships. Enter the sex robots, built out of the bodies of sex dolls to help humans, particularly males escape their inability to connect. What does the rise of sex robots tell us about the way that women and girls are imagined, are they persons or property? And to what extent is porn, prostitution and child sexual exploitation driving the attachment crisis? What is happening and what can be done? This book explores these themes.
  • Ethics and Privacy in AI and Big Data: Implementing Responsible Research and Innovation
    Ethics and Privacy in AI and Big Data: Implementing Responsible Research and Innovation Stahl, Bernd Carsten, 1968-; Wright, David Emerging combinations of artificial intelligence, big data and the applications these enable are receiving significant media and policy attention. Much of the attention concerns privacy and other ethical issues. In our paper, we suggest that what is needed now is a way to comprehensively understand these issues and find mechanisms of addressing them that involve stakeholders, including civil society, to ensure that these technologies’ benefits outweigh their disadvantages. We suggest that the concept of responsible research and innovation (RRI) can provide the framing required to act with a view to ensuring that the technologies are socially acceptable, desirable and sustainable. We draw from our work on the Human Brain Project, one potential driver for the next generation of these technologies, to discuss how RRI can be put in practice. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version.
  • Community Media and Digital Inclusion
    Community Media and Digital Inclusion Watson, Rob This civic engagement model is comprehensibly embedded in the ethos of the community media move-ment, but the role of community media, however, tends not to be recognised within state and govern-ment-led community development policies and practices, either at a local, regional or national level. The mass-communications model of social engagement predominates in civic policy development, service planning and service delivery, which often leaves participatory forms of community media as an adjunct to marketing-defined engagement. So, rather than seeing community media as a primary component of community development practice, skills development, literacies and identity expression, community de-velopment practices tend to view community media as an afterthought, or worse, as a plaything. The point that is worth making here, however, is that by Incorporating community media at the planning and service development stage of civic engagement projects, it will be possible to add a further strategic instrument to digital inclusion policy and practice that will enhance civic and social engagement more comprehensively.
  • ACM Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct
    ACM Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct Gotterbarn, D. W.; Brinkman, Bo; Flick, Catherine; Kirkpatrick, Michael S.; Miller, Keith; Vazansky, Kate; Wolf, Marty J. Computing professionals' actions change the world. To act responsibly, they should reflect upon the wider impacts of their work, consistently supporting the public good. The ACM Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct ("the Code") expresses the conscience of the profession. The Code is designed to inspire and guide the ethical conduct of all computing professionals, including current and aspiring practitioners, instructors, students, influencers, and anyone who uses computing technology in an impactful way. Additionally, the Code serves as a basis for remediation when violations occur. The Code includes principles formulated as statements of responsibility, based on the understanding that the public good is always the primary consideration. Each principle is supplemented by guidelines, which provide explanations to assist computing professionals in understanding and applying the principle. This Code may be published without permission as long as it is not changed in any way and it carries the copyright notice. Copyright (c) 2018 by the Association for Computing Machinery.
  • Digital Existence - the Modern Way to Be
    Digital Existence - the Modern Way to Be Rogerson, Simon This is an interpretative viewpoint blending perspectives to form a composite view of digital existence. The paper uses philosophy, sociology and linguistics within an ethnographic framework of contrasting cultural and cultural artefact views. Digital being and the relationship between physical and virtual are discussed. Evidence suggests acceptance of the virtual world as a location of coexistence. How technology has merged with humans so that humans have become more than their organic selves is examined. In a virtual world, digital existence is achieved through Daseinian avatars and so the concept of self is explored. There then follows a broader discussion about the online world which leads into how these new technologies become accepted by individuals and society. The influence of mass media is considered in this context. This is followed by a short analysis of the vocabulary used to describe the online world. The paper ends with a call to rethink how to view and react to the online world. Existing positions are challenged as being inappropriate given the analysis undertaken.
  • Community Media Association UK Government Consultation on Civic Engagement
    Community Media Association UK Government Consultation on Civic Engagement Watson, Rob The civic engagement model is embedded in the ethos of the community media movement, but the role of community media tends not to be recognised within government-led community development policies and practices, at a local, regional or national level. The mass-communications model of social engagement predominates in policy development, service planning and service delivery, often leaving participatory forms of community media as an adjunct to marketing-defined engagement, rather than as a primary component of community development practice. Incorporating commu-nity media at the planning and service development stage of civic engagement projects will add a further strategic in-strument that will enhance civic and social engagement.
  • Responsible Research in IT
    Responsible Research in IT Nulli, Margherita; Stahl, Bernd Carsten, 1968-; Ten Holter, Carolyn; de Heaver, Martin The file attached to this record is the author's version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.

More publications from the CCSR.

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