Professor Rick Greenough

Job: Professor of Energy Systems

Faculty: Technology

School/department: School of Engineering and Sustainable Development

Research group(s): Institute of Energy and Sustainable Development (IESD)

Address: De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester, LE1 9BH, United Kingdom

T: +44 (0)116 207 8714

E: rgreenough@dmu.ac.uk

W: https://www.dmu.ac.uk/research/centres-institutes/iesd/index.aspx

 

Research group affiliations

Institute of Energy and Sustainable Development (IESD)

Publications and outputs 

  • Steam storage systems for flexible biomass CHP plants - Evaluation and initial model based calculation
    Steam storage systems for flexible biomass CHP plants - Evaluation and initial model based calculation Greenough, R. M.; Stark, Matthias; Conti, F.; Abdessamad, S.; Zörner, W. Within the present study a novel concept for the demand-oriented power generation of a solid-biomass fueled combined heat and power (CHP) plant is investigated. The integration of a steam storage system into the plants process enables a decoupling of the steam (boiler) and the power generation (steam turbine). By buffering the steam, the power output of the turbine can be adjusted without changing the rated thermal capacity of the plant. Various available storage systems are selected and comparatively evaluated applying the adapted analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The technology assessment revealed that the combination of a steam accumulator and solid concrete storage represents the best suiting option. An initial model based simulation study is performed to identify the fundamental behaviour of this system, integrated in a biomass CHP plant. The operation principle is has proved their technical feasibility and seems to be applicable at a commercial scale. According to the modelling results flexible short term power generation in a time range of up to fifteen minutes is applicable. A load-range of almost the plants rated capacity can be achieved. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Can fuel cell micro-CHP justify the hydrogen gas grid? Operating experience from a UK domestic retrofit
    Can fuel cell micro-CHP justify the hydrogen gas grid? Operating experience from a UK domestic retrofit Boait, Peter John; Greenough, R. M. Fuel cell based micro combined heat and power (micro CHP) has been the subject of numerous simula- tion studies. We report on actual practical performance of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) micro CHP in a UK dwelling over the 2017–18 heating season and compare its performance with a Stirling engine micro CHP which it replaced. Results show that the PEMFC micro CHP achieves a much higher an- nual electricity output over a year, with household self-consumption and operating economics dependent on electric vehicle charging. Empirical models derived from this operating experience show that the value of this technology is less sensitive to building parameters, occupancy, and climate change when compared to engine-based micro CHP. We consider the potential role of this technology in the decarbonisation of heat, and highlight the benefit of reliable electricity generation injected into low voltage distribution to mitigate winter demand peaks from heat pumps. A comparative analysis of the primary energy efficiency of different methods of meeting domestic energy demand using natural gas with carbon capture shows that a mixed solution to decarbonisation of heat, combining heat pumps, PEMFC micro CHP, and hydro- gen boilers, should not degrade energy efficiency substantially by comparison with an all-electric solution and could be more acceptable to consumers. The authors would like to thank the European Commission for partial funding under the Horizon 2020 PACE project of the PEM fuel cell micro CHP evaluated in this study. Supplementary material associated with this article can be found, in the online version, at doi: 10.1016/j.enbuild.2019.04.021 The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Are shallow boreholes a suitable option for inter-seasonal ground heat storage for the small housing sector?
    Are shallow boreholes a suitable option for inter-seasonal ground heat storage for the small housing sector? Naranjo-Mendoza, C.; Wright, A. J.; Greenough, R. M. In recent years, various researchers have studied the performance of Solar Assisted Ground Source Heat Pump (SAGSHP) systems using borehole heat exchangers. However, the research conducted has been limited to conventional boreholes (30m to 150m depth), which are expensive and not suitable for the small housing sector. This paper reports an experimental analysis of a shallow SAGSHP system with inter-seasonal storage. The system, installed in Leicester UK, consists of seven photovoltaic-thermal (PVT) collectors connected in series with an array of 16 shallow boreholes (1.5 meters depth). Data regarding the energy fluxes involved in the soil-based thermal store have been monitored and analysed for one year. The results show that the shallow soil is able to serve as a storage medium to cover the heating demands of a near zero energy domestic building. However, it was noticed that in addition to the solar heat captured and stored in the soil, the system covers part of the heating demand from heat extracted from the soil surrounding the thermal store. During winter, the lowest temperature reached by the soil so far is 2 °C. Hence, no freezing problems have occurred in the soil. An analysis of the temperature variation of the ground storage under the system operation is also shown. open access
  • Methodological Evaluation of Storage Systems for Flexible Power Generation from Solid Biomass
    Methodological Evaluation of Storage Systems for Flexible Power Generation from Solid Biomass Stark, Matthias; Trinkl, Christoph; Zörner, Wilfried; Greenough, R. M. The increasing number of fluctuating renewable power producers in the electricity grid leads to several challenges in the grid's infrastructure and its operation. Biomass combustion plants, however, can be modified to increase the flexibility of power production by integrating steam storage devices. In this paper, the available storage systems are evaluated, considering the boundaries of the plants and the requirements of power grids and markets. An objective result is generated by conducting a Delphi study using energy experts. The Utility-Value-Analysis method is used to identify the most promising storage concept. Using this methodology, the resulting storage concept is found to be a combination of a steam accumulator and a solid storage. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Exergy analysis of a four pan jaggery making process
    Exergy analysis of a four pan jaggery making process Khattak, S.; Sardeshpande, V.; Brown, Neil; Greenough, R. M. Jaggery is a non-traditional sweetener that is produced from boiling sugarcane juice. Due to the energy intensive nature of the combustion process in jaggery making, previous studies in literature have presented various process and equipment modifications to affect its energy efficiency. This study adds to the understanding of the resource transformations and consumptions in the jaggery process by presenting its exergy analysis. The baseline process was operationally modified for which the exergy efficiency and exergy destruction are calculated. Through the modifications, the exergy efficiency and exergy destruction increased by 11.2% and 0.8% respectively. A significant amount of exergy was wasted as surplus heat in the form of flue gas, which reduced by 11.5% due to process modifications. The results show that while the most evident form of resource waste was due to flue gas released into the environment, the largest form of resource consumption was actually due to exergy destruction arising from irreversibilities in combustion, a result not clearly evident through energy analysis alone. Through modelling process flows in terms of exergy, the analysis presented in this paper increases the visibility of the resource consumptions and losses in the jaggery making process. This study should aid the efforts of researchers and practitioners aiming to reduce resource consumption in the jaggery making process. open access article
  • A comparison of analytical and numerical model predictions of shallow soil temperature variation with experimental measurements
    A comparison of analytical and numerical model predictions of shallow soil temperature variation with experimental measurements Naranjo-Mendoza, C.; Wright, A. J.; Oyinlola, M. A.; Greenough, R. M. In several fields of enquiry such as geothermal energy, geology and agriculture, it is of interest to study the thermal behaviour of shallow soils. For this, several analytical and numerical methodologies have been proposed to analyse the temperature variation of the soil in the short and long term. In this paper, a comparative study of different models (sinusoidal, semi-infinite and finite difference method) is conducted to estimate the shallow soil temperature variation in the short and long term. The models were compared with hourly experimental measured data of soil temperature in Leicester, UK, at depths between 0.75 and 2.75 m. The results show that the sinusoidal model is not appropriate to evaluate the short-term temperature variations, such as hourly or daily fluctuations. Likewise, this model is highly affected by the undisturbed ground temperature and can lead to very high errors. Regarding the semi-infinite model, it is accurate enough to predict the short-term temperature variation. However, it is useless to predict the long-term variation at depths greater than 1 m. The finite difference method (FDM) considering the air temperature as a boundary condition for the soil surface is the most accurate approach for estimating both short and long-term temperature variations while the FDM with heat flux as boundary condition is the least accurate approach due to the uncertainty of the assumed parameters. The ranges of errors for the sinusoidal, semi-infinite and FDM are found to be from 76.09 to 142.13%, 12.11 to 104.88% and 1.82 to 28.14% respectively. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Towards improved energy and resource management in manufacturing
    Towards improved energy and resource management in manufacturing Khattak, Sanober; Oates, Michael; Greenough, R. M. Exergy analysis has widely been used to assess resource consumption, and to identify opportunities for improvement within manufacturing. The main advantages being its ability to account for energy quality and consumption. However, its application in industrial practice is limited, which may be due to the lack of its consistent application in practice. Current energy management standards, that facilitate consistent application of procedures, do not consider the quality aspects of energy flows. An exergy based energy management standards is proposed in this paper that would take into account energy quality aspects, while facilitating the consistent application of exergy analysis in industrial practice. Building on ISO50001, this paper presents guidelines for implementing energy and resource management in factories, incorporating the concepts of exergy and holistic factory simulation, illustrated through a manufacturing case study. From the factory level analysis, a chilling process was identified to have significant improvement potential. A dry fan cooler, using ambient air was proposed for improved efficiency of the chillers. Energy based metrics portrayed a system that operated at high efficiency, however exergy analysis indicated much room for further improvement, therefore impacting decision making for technology selection. The contribution of this paper is in presenting a set of prescriptive guidelines that could possibly be further developed into a new energy management standard that would utilize the advantages of exergy analysis towards improved energy and resource management in manufacturing. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version.
  • Resource Accounting in Factories and the Energy-Water Nexus
    Resource Accounting in Factories and the Energy-Water Nexus Khattak, Sanober; Greenough, R. M. A manufacturing system comprises production processes and building services, both of which are supplied by different energy carriers as well as raw materials and water. These resources interact according to complex relationships and are converted into products for sale and waste flows. Holistic resource accounting allows the analyst to consider the dynamic relationships between these components, including the strong interdependence between energy and water, which has been called the energy-water nexus. Exergy analysis is a method that accounts for mass and both the quantity and quality of energy, while allowing analysis on a common basis and for this reason it is used increasingly to analyse resource consumption in manufacturing systems; however it has rarely been used to consider water flows alongside energy and material flows. The main contribution of this paper is the presentation of modeling water flows in terms of exergy in the context of sustainable manufacturing. Using this technique in combination with previously developed exergy based methods; the result is a truly holistic resource accounting method for factories based on exergy analysis that incorporates water flows. The method is illustrated using a case study of a food factory in which a 4.1% reduction in resource use is shown to be possible by employing anaerobic digester in an effluent water treatment process. The benefits of this technology option would have been underestimated compared to the benefits of waste heat capture if an analysis based on mass and energy balances alone had been used. The scientific value of this paper is the demonstration of the relatively high exergy content of effluent flows, which should therefore be regarded as potentially valuable resources. The analytical method presented is therefore of value to a wide range of industries beyond the food industry. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. open access article
  • Perovskite solar cells: An integrated hybrid lifecycle assessment and review in comparison with other photovoltaic technologies
    Perovskite solar cells: An integrated hybrid lifecycle assessment and review in comparison with other photovoltaic technologies Ibn-Mohammed, Taofeeq; Koh, S.C. L.; Reaney, I. M.; Acquaye, A.; Schileo, G.; Mustapha, K. B.; Greenough, R. M. Solar cells are considered as one of the prominent sources of renewable energy suitable for large-scale adoption in a carbon-constrained world and can contribute to reduced reliance on energy imports, whilst improving the security of energy supply. A new arrival in the family of solar cells technologies is the organic-inorganic halide perovskite. The major thrust for endorsing these new solar cells pertains to their potential as an economically and environmentally viable option to traditional silicon-based technology. To verify this assertion, this paper presents a critical review of some existing photovoltaic (PV) technologies in comparison with perovskite structured solar cells (PSCs), including material and performance parameters, production processes and manufacturing complexity, economics, key technological challenges for further developments and current research efforts. At present, there is limited environmental assessment of PSCs and consequently, a methodologically robust and environmentally expansive lifecycle supply chain assessment of two types of PSC modules A and B is also undertaken within the context of other PV technologies, to assess their potential for environmentally friendly innovation in the energy sector. Module A is based on MAPbX3 perovskite structure while module B is based on CsFAPbX3 with improved stability, reproducibility and high performance efficiency. The main outcomes, presented along with sensitivity analysis, show that PSCs offer more environmentally friendly and sustainable option, with the least energy payback period, as compared to other PV technologies. The review and analysis presented provide valuable insight and guidance in identifying pathways and windows of opportunity for future PV designs towards cleaner and sustainable energy production. open access article
  • Life cycle assessment for three ventilation methods
    Life cycle assessment for three ventilation methods Greenough, R. M.; Fong, Alan Ming-Lun; Fong, Kwong Fai; Hanby, V. I. (Victor Ian), 1942- A sustainable ventilation method is one of the possible solutions to mitigate climate change and carbon emission. This method shall involve an analysis of the environmental impact, energy performance, and economical cost-effectiveness. There are still few studies concerning the life cycle assessment (LCA) of various alternative ventilation systems incorporating the combined effect of life cycle cost (LCC) and carbon emission in the supply-and-installation phase, as well as energy performances in the operation phase. The supply-and-installation phase of the system materials and components has a significant contribution to the total energy consumption and environmental loads of buildings. This paper covers a systematic approach to estimate their environmental impact, which was counted in terms of energy demand and CO2 emission in the two phases. This approach has been applied to an actual typical classroom served by mixing ventilation (MV), displacement ventilation (DV) and stratum ventilation (SV). The results show that SV has the least environmental impact and life cycle cost (LCC). Results of this analysis demonstrated that by adopting DV and SV, it is possible to reduce the CO2 emission up to 23.25% and 31.71% respectively; and to reduce the LCC up to 15.52% and 23.89% respectively, in comparison with an MV system for 20 service years. This approach may be generally applied to a sustainability analysis of ventilation methods in various scales of air-conditioned spaces. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.

Click here for a full listing of Rick Greenough's publications and outputs. 

Research interests/expertise

Industrial sustainability, low carbon manufacturing, energy efficient manufacturing.

Areas of teaching

Renewable Energy Technology

Industrial Sustainability

Qualifications

PhD Advanced Manufacturing

MSc Industrial Robotics and Manufacturing Automation

BA (Oxon) Engineering Science

Courses taught

ENGD2033 Near Zero Emissions Technologies

ENGD5220 Low Impact Manufacturing

Membership of professional associations and societies

Member of IET

Member of Energy Institute

Conference attendance

  • Benedettini, O., Baines, T.S., Lightfoot, H.W. and Greenough, R.M. (2008), ‘State-Of-The-Art In Integrated Vehicle Health Management’, In: Proceedings of the 3rd World Conference on Production and Operations Management (POM Tokyo 2008), 5th-8th August 2008, Gakushuin University, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Greenough RM. (2009), ‘Manufacturing As If The World Matters’, In: O’Donnell, G.E and Kelly, K. (eds), Proceedings of the 26th International Manufacturing Conference IMC-26, 2nd – 4th September 2009, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland, pp. 33-40. ISBN: 978-0-9562303-8-6.
     
  • Ball, P.D., Despeisse, M., Evans, S., Greenough, R.M., Hope, S.B., Kerrigan, R., Levers, A., Lunt, P., Oates, M.R., Quincey, R., Shao, L., Waltniel, T., Wheatley, C. and Wright, A.J. (2011), ‘Modelling Energy Flows Across Buildings, Facilities and Manufacturing Operations’, In: Young, P. and Geraghty, J. (eds), Proceedings of the 28th International Manufacturing Conference IMC-28, 30th August – 1st  September 2011, Dublin City University, Ireland.
  • Oates, M.R., Wright, A., Greenough, R.M. and Shao, L. (2011), Understanding Resource Flows in a Factory Environment – a Graphical Approach, In: Bartolo, H. et al. (eds). Proceedings of the 1st International Conference in Sustainable Intelligent Manufacturing, SIM2011, 29th June – 1st July, Leiria, Portugal, pp. 95-102.

Externally funded research grants information

The Carbon Game, EPSRC, Partnerships for Public Engagement, PI

KAP, EU FP7, PI

THERM, TSB, CI

LESSONS, TSB, CI

Professional esteem indicators

Rick was asked to review a proposal for a Royal Academy of Engineering public engagement grant under the RAE ‘Ingenious’ scheme. Proposal was entitled: ‘Renewable energy in SCI-FUN, the Scottish Science and Technology Roadshow’.

Rick-Greenough

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