Professor Paul Fleming

Job: Director of Sustainable Development

Faculty: Technology

School/department: School of Engineering and Sustainable Development

Research group(s): Institute of Energy and Sustainable Development

Address: De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester, LE1 9BH, United Kingdom

T: +44 (0)116 257 7961

E: pfleming@dmu.ac.uk

W: https://www.dmu.ac.uk/research/centres-institutes/iesd/index.aspx

 

Personal profile

Paul Fleming is Professor of Energy Management in the Faculty of Technology and Director of Sustainable Development at De Montfort University.  He has over 25 years experience of working at local to regional level on energy efficiency, renewable energy and greenhouse gas emission reductions, with focus on the technical, non technical and public engagement aspects of achieving deep cuts in emissions.  It includes the analysis of monthly and half hourly electricity, gas and water data in buildings and using smart phones to communicate the science and engineering of a low carbon society to people attending music festivals.  Paul has undertaken research for the EPSRC, EU, Government and industry including working with the UK Sustainable Development Commission on large scale area based CO2 reduction measures.  Internationally he has worked with the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives, the OECD and the German Marshall Fund of the United States of America.  At the European level, he contributes to the work of the Energy Cities network of environmentally and energy conscious cities. 

Publications and outputs 

  • Young people and greenhouse gas emissions at music festivals
    Young people and greenhouse gas emissions at music festivals Fleming, P. D.; Fletcher, Richard; Fleming, Margaret; MacGarry, Ann; McCahon, Debs The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Institutional, social and individual behavioural effects of energy feedback in public buildings across eleven European cities
    Institutional, social and individual behavioural effects of energy feedback in public buildings across eleven European cities Ozawa-Meida, L.; Wilson, Caroline; Fleming, P. D.; Stuart, Graeme; Holland, Carl Better understanding of the factors influencing how people use energy in public buildings can help deliver more effective CO2 reduction strategies. This paper describes the institutional, social and individual behavioural effects of communication campaigns in over 500 public buildings in 11 European cities. These campaigns involved engaging with staff to reduce energy use through feedback services based on information from sub hourly meter readings. A summative evaluation was conducted to understand impacts of different information provision in these cities. Qualitative data were gathered through a set of interviews with 40 building professionals at the central or building level. These interviews identified differences in how the energy efficiency communication-based campaigns were implemented at each site and elicited factors to explain how users’ perceptions and understanding changed as a result of the interventions. The evaluation framework helped to identify not only improvements in the delivery of communication-based campaigns, but also the communication factors that impacted on individual behaviour change. The research highlighted the influence of institutional and social effects on individual beliefs and norms. To achieve more effective change in attitudes to reduce use, energy feedback needs to be supported with engagement activities, such as energy coaches, campaigns, and interactive online fora. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Big Data, People, and Low-Carbon Cities
    Big Data, People, and Low-Carbon Cities Fleming, P. D.
  • Closing the feedback loop: A systems approach to supporting community-wide behaviour change in non-domestic buildings
    Closing the feedback loop: A systems approach to supporting community-wide behaviour change in non-domestic buildings Stuart, Graeme; Snape, J. Richard; Fleming, P. D. Energy consumption is notoriously invisible to building users. Communicating energy performance to users presents a significant opportunity to support behaviour change. Access to near real-time consumption data makes ubiquitous energy performance feedback systems a realistic possibility. Non-domestic building energy performance is a complicated issue, so providing simple, intelligible feedback can be difficult. Communicating what building users are supposed to do with the information is still more so. A true closed-loop feedback system must include both communication of information to users and a means for users to affect the building to which the information pertains. This paper reports the design and use of a novel information system to facilitate a true feedback loop between a community of building stakeholders (users, energy professionals, researchers) and 25 pilot buildings. The buildings were equipped to communicate energy performance in near real time via a user-friendly ‘dashboard’ built on a sophisticated system of automated data capture, energy consumption modelling, predictive statistical analysis and visualisation. The ‘dashboard’ allowed casual users to access information easily via a simple happy/sad performance indicator whilst more “data-philic” users were able to click through to a data rich, easy-to-use interface. Users were also provided with access to a digital social platform enabling transparent discussion of energy performance with reference to the objective data. Results show that the ‘dashboard’ and digital social platform components are each valuable in their own right but in combination they produced a system whereby users could identify and solve energy and water performance problems effectively and efficiently. The work was partly funded by the SMARTSPACES project (http://smartspaces.eu) co-funded by the European Commission within the CIP ICT Policy Support Programme (Grant agreement no. 297273).
  • Summative behaviour change evaluation of up-to-date metered energy feedback in European public buildings
    Summative behaviour change evaluation of up-to-date metered energy feedback in European public buildings Ozawa-Meida, L.; Wilson, Caroline; Holland, Carl; Fleming, P. D.; Stuart, Graeme Energy consumption practices and behaviour are increasingly an important focus of attention, for energy efficiency measures. Such is the demand caused by behaviour at the level of the individual, it may cancel out the benefits of engineering solutions, such as more energy efficient appliances (Adua, 2010). This paper focuses on an evaluation of the SMARTSPACES project and its effect on energy-related behaviour change. The project provided two services: an energy management service (EMS) and an energy decision support service (EDSS). These services were implemented in over 450 public buildings across 11 European cities in 8 European countries (Serbia, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, Turkey and United Kingdom). Building professionals (energy managers) primarily used the EMS and building staff used the EDSS. These services intended to inform, support and enable target audiences to use up-to-date metered feedback to reduce energy use in public buildings. The theory of change that underpins the evaluation framework is based in the Elaboration Likelihood Model which aims to understand how communication can influence attitudes and the Theory of Planned Behaviour that examines which attitudes are more likely to predict intentions and behaviours (Wilson, 2014). The paper presents results of ex-ante and ex-post surveys to building staff about their levels of awareness, attitudes, perceived control behaviour and intentions in three selected cities: Bristol, Leicester and Venlo. Outcomes varied across the examined cities depending upon the type of information presented, the level of engagement of users with the energy saving campaigns and the amount of previous energy management work undertaken by buildings’ facilities and energy management professionals.
  • Data gathering and architecture aspects of a major EU wide energy efficiency project for SMEs
    Data gathering and architecture aspects of a major EU wide energy efficiency project for SMEs Brown, Neil; Fleming, P. D.; Favaretto, Nicoletta; Snadford, Niall “Support and Training for an Excellent Energy Efficiency Performance” is a 3-year European project helping over 600 European cross-sector small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) to reduce their energy use and become more energy-efficient. Companies participating in STEEEP benefit from tailored training and guidance on effective energy management tools and best practices provided by an established network of energy advisors from Chambers of Commerce and Industry (CCIs) in 10 different countries. SMEs in many EU countries employ over 90% of the workforce, so improving the energy efficiency of EU SMEs is therefore compelling, with clear advantages for the European economy. Energy efficiency in SMEs previously received less attention than in larger companies, the public sector and dwellings. Previously, policymakers had little energy (and related) data for SMEs, making prioritising ways to support energy conservation difficult. In addition staffing resources and knowledge levels within SMEs frequently determine the level of commitment to energy efficiency and implementing EU energy and climate policy, with a dedicated or even part time energy manager for many SMEs a rarity. The STEEEP project aims to help this by introducing training to SMEs via CCIs, and monitoring savings and providing feedback to SMEs. Crucial to this is the benchmarking of energy use: Basic data about the SMEs, the SME’s energy consumption, and information about the SME policies and procedures relating to energy were gathered form each of the over 600 participants. Managing these data is a considerable task, notably in several languages, using combinations of numeric, free text and other data, gathered through questionnaires. It is not merely fiscal metering data, and supporting information that are gathered, we ask for from occupancy, to building types, and to complete the energy management matrix. We describe how this is done; the data processing . survey design, initial data gathering, benchmarking, and database architecture. Energy use is gathered as the project progresses , with interventions and changes captured. This paper describes the methods used and presents lessons learnt. This include the process of collecting , storing and analyzing the data from over 600 SMEs in 10 different countries. It identifies how barriers were overcome and how information from the data collection is being used by Chambers of Commerce and Industry to help reduce energy use of SMEs
  • Identifying potential gas consumption reductions from municipal buildings through the analysis of half-hourly primary gas meter data
    Identifying potential gas consumption reductions from municipal buildings through the analysis of half-hourly primary gas meter data Ferreira, Vasco Guedes; Fleming, P. D.; Stuart, Graeme
  • Smart energy performance indicators for live historical and normative feedback systems
    Smart energy performance indicators for live historical and normative feedback systems Stuart, Graeme; Fleming, P. D. Communicating building energy performance to building users has been identified as a significant opportunity to support behaviour change. This research pursues the concept of continuous, automated feedback designed to support motivated building users to learn how their behaviour impacts building energy performance. Automated energy consumption data collection presents an opportunity to develop approaches for continuous feedback systems. However, energy performance is a complex notion and consumption data alone are not suitable to convey performance. In order to be of use, performance indicators designed specifically for providing feedback to building users must reflect changes in user behaviour which may be small relative to total consumption. A new building energy performance indicator is proposed based on the concept of continuous improvement. The indicator combines the benefits of historic and normative feedback by producing a normalised index of improvement or deterioration over time. The indicator is also well suited to communicating building energy performance in a user-friendly way. The indicator is based on a predictive consumption model fitted to data for a rolling baseline period. The scale of the indicator is defined in terms of the variation in baseline model residuals. This allows for a direct comparison between buildings on the basis of improvement or deterioration from the baseline performance. A direct comparison can be made even between very different buildings. A case study of five university buildings is presented. Consumption is predicted at half-hourly resolution using a variation of a standard variable degree day model. The indicator is calculated for each half hour beyond the initial 365-day baseline period on a rolling basis with a new baseline model being calculated each week. The indicator reflects even small changes to regular consumption patterns, both persistent and transient. Persistent changes are absorbed into the rolling baseline model after a few months. Critically the indicator is sensitive enough to detect small changes in consumption patterns and can be compared between buildings. As a feedback tool the indicator has the benefit of having a common scale and being comparable across buildings.
  • Digitally Engaging and Empowering Employees for Energy Demand Reduction: A New Approach for the Next Generation?
    Digitally Engaging and Empowering Employees for Energy Demand Reduction: A New Approach for the Next Generation? Bull, R.; Lemon, Mark; Fleming, P. D.; Stuart, Graeme; Everitt, Dave Opinion is divided over whether technical solutions or behavioural change strategies offer the best energy savings potential in buildings. Behaviour change initiatives could have impact given current estimates that 30% of energy in buildings is wasted. However, technical solutions epitomised by ‘smart’ cities and buildings, exhort the role of information and communications technology (IT) and the digital economy as offering significant potential for carbon reduction. Yet both technical and behavioural approaches share the same contested assumption: users are a hurdle to overcome rather than a resource to be utilized. This paper presents an alternative approach, informed by social media and public participation experts, reframing the relationships between energy management personnel and those using the energy. This paper presents new findings from a UK research project funded by the Engineering and Physical Research Council. Working with a local authority energy team and a user-group of building users (from energy managers to ‘ordinary’ users) Gooddeeds developed and tested digital technologies social media/smartphone tools to engage with, and empower, employees in the reduction of their building’s environmental impact. Findings from the first set of focus groups with the user group offer insight into the potential for a more collaborative approach to benefit building users through raising awareness of best practice with regards building energy management. In particular, collaborative approaches have the potential to empower building users with the tools and contacts to resolve issues more quickly. Yet there can be no ‘one-size’ fits all approach to non-domestic buildings with this research highlighting clear variations of engagement and interest in this approach dependent on building type.
  • Electricity-related GHG emissions at off-grid, outdoor events
    Electricity-related GHG emissions at off-grid, outdoor events Fleming, P. D.; Marchini, Ben; Maughan, Christopher

Click here for a full listing of Paul Fleming's publications and outputs.

Research interests/expertise

  • Reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission at the local and regional level.
  • Analysis of half hourly energy and water consumption.
  • Public engagement in the science and engineering of reducing greenhouse gas emission.
  • Inter disciplinary research on low carbon buildings and cites.
  • Energy management in domestic and non domestic buildings.
  • Sustainable development in higher education.
  • Future and smart cities.
  • Greenhouse gas emissions inventories.
  • Energy visualisation and community engagement
  • Local and regional energy policy

Areas of teaching

Energy Analysis Techniques

Qualifications

MSc PhD

Courses taught

Contribute to MSc Climate Change and Sustainable Development, MSc Energy and Sustainable Bulging Design, MSc Energy and Industrial Sustainability.

Honours and awards

Leicester City Council: National Energy Efficiency Award

1991

German Marshall Fund Environmental Fellow – study tour of USA

1995

Leicester City Council Beacon Council for Sustainable Energy, Part of team, with Leicester city Council that won the award

2005

Overall winner, 2008 National Energy Efficiency Awards – C-Change project (Woodcraft Folk, De Montfort University and Centre for Alternative Technology)

2008

Leicester Green life award 2010, face Your Elephant (Woodcraft Folk and De Montfort University)

2010

NEA Regional Award, Leicester Sustainable Schools (EPSRC  public engagement project) 

2010

Membership of external committees

  • Member, Leicester City Partnership
  • Chair, Leicester Environment Group
  • Member UK Energy Research Centre, Research Committee

Membership of professional associations and societies

Fellow of the Energy Institute

Projects

EU H202, Energy Data Innovation network (EDI-Net), 2016- 2019

EU H2020, Political and Social Awareness on Water Environmental Challenges, (POWER),  2015-2019

EU, IEE, Support and Training for an Excellent Energy Efficiency Performance (STEEP), 2014-2017

EPSRC, Goodee2ds - 2012 – 2014

Knowledge Exchange Partnership, Low carbon Schools - 2012 - 2015

EU, Smart Spaces - 2012 - 2015

EPSRC, The Carbon Game - 2010 - 2010

Knowledge Transfer Partnership,) Design of carbon neutral schools 2009 – 2012

EPSRC, Face Your Elephant; Engaging Festival Goers in the Science and Engineering of reducing their Carbon Footprint - 2009 - 2011

Sustainable Construction iNET, Thermographic imaging and monitoring of small businesses and schools (£40k) - 2009 - 2009

EPSRC Engaging pupils teachers and governors in the science, engineering and technology of “carbon neutral” schools - 2009 - 2011

EU Intelligent Energy Europe, CYBER-Display - 2008 - 2011

EU Intelligent Energy Europe, Automated Intelligent Metering for SMES - 2007 - 2009

Woodcraft Folk: Edinburgh Powerpod Evaluation - 2007 - 2009

Pilkington Energy Efficiency Trust, Climate Mobile evaluation - 2007 -2008

EPSRC The Renewables Roadshow - 2007 - 2009

DEFRA Climate Challenge Fund, Evaluation of the C-Change project - 2006 --2008

HEIF regional fellowship in energy data analysis - 2006 - 2007

HEIF Regional Fellowship in Communicating Energy - 2006 - 2007

EPSRC Building schools for a sustainable future - 2005 - 2006

EPSRC: Global Village 2006; Young People and Environmental Sustainability - 2005 - 2007

EPSRC Supergen: Sustainable evolution of the UK electricity supply network - 2003 - 2007

EPSRC: Activity Based Future Energy Scenarios for the decisions makers of tomorrow - 2002 - 2004

SDC: dCARB-uk - 2002 - 2003

EMRA: East Midlands Regional Assembly, Education for Sustainable Development - 2002 - 2003

EPSRC: Climate Change Masters Training Package - 2001 - 2006

FPV, NNE-1999-00583: NESE (New Education for Sustainable Energy) - 2000 - 2002

EPSRC: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Models Evaluation and Local Authorities - 2000 - 2002

DGXII, JOULE/ CRAFT: SHEEBA (Self Help Energy Efficiency Business Advisor) - 1999 - 2001

DGXVII, ALTENER: Ashton Green, Renewable Energy Community - 1999 - 2001

EU, DGXVII, SAVE II: Municipal Measures to Promote Energy Efficiency in Residential Buildings - 1999 - 2000

DGXVII, ALTENER: CURE (Communities Using Renewable Energy) - 1999 - 2000

EU, DGXVII, Thermie B: Improving Energy Performance in Dyeing Drying and Finishing, continuation project - 1998 - 2000

EU, DGXVII, SAVE II: Self Directed Training for Local Energy Agencies - 1998 - 2000

EU, DGXVII, SAVE II: Newark and Sherwood Energy Agency - 1997 - 2000

EU, DGXVII, SAVE II: Large Scale Self Financing of Energy Efficiency Measures in Leicester and Barcelona - 1997 - 2000

EU, DGXVII PERU: The Leicester and Barcelona Local Energy Agencies - 1996 - 1999

EPSRC: The Sustainable City – Assessment and Management of Urban Energy Demand - 1996 - 1999

EU, DGXVII, Thermie B: Improving Energy Performance in Dyeing drying and finishing -1996 - 1997

Consultancy work

Consultancy work is undertaken across a range of energy and sustainable development related areas including policy, data analysis and expert advice and guidance. This includes

  • Reducing greenhouse gas emission at the local and regional level
  • Analysis of half hourly energy and water consumption to reduce greenhouse gas emissions
  • Public engagement in the science and engineering of reducing greenhouse gas emission
  • Inter disciplinary research on reducing greenhouse gas emissions
  • Energy management in domestic and non domestic buildings
  • Sustainable development in higher education
  • Policy guidance on energy in buildings, industry and cities.
  • Studies on area based carbon emission reduction
  • Strategic Briefings
  • Low Carbon Economy 
  • Evaluation of citywide  CHP Schemes
  • City energy and climate strategy  Evaluation
  • Greenhouse gas emissions data and models
  • Training material for Energy Assessors
  • European Expert on Energy Efficiency to the Ukraine
  • European Expert on young people and sustainable development to China

     

Externally funded research grants information

  • EU, DGXVII, Thermie B: Improving Energy Performance in Dyeing drying and finishing -1996 - 1997
  • EPSRC: The Sustainable City – Assessment and Management of Urban Energy Demand - 1996 - 1999
  • EU, DGXVII PERU: The Leicester and Barcelona Local Energy Agencies - 1996 - 1999
  • EU, DGXVII, SAVE II: Large Scale Self Financing of Energy Efficiency Measures in Leicester and Barcelona - 1997 - 2000
  • EU, DGXVII, SAVE II: Newark and Sherwood Energy Agency - 1997 - 2000
  • EU, DGXVII, SAVE II: Self Directed Training for Local Energy Agencies - 1998 - 2000
  • EU, DGXVII, Thermie B: Improving Energy Performance in Dyeing Drying and Finishing, continuation project - 1998 - 2000
  • DGXVII, ALTENER: CURE (Communities Using Renewable Energy) - 1999 - 2000
  • EU, DGXVII, SAVE II: Municipal Measures to Promote Energy Efficiency in Residential Buildings - 1999 - 2000
  • DGXVII, ALTENER: Ashton Green, Renewable Energy Community - 1999 - 2001
  • DGXII, JOULE/ CRAFT: SHEEBA (Self Help Energy Efficiency Business Advisor) - 1999 - 2001
  • EPSRC: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Models Evaluation and Local Authorities - 2000 - 2002
  • FPV, NNE-1999-00583: NESE (New Education for Sustainable Energy) - 2000 - 2002
  • EPSRC: Climate Change Masters Training Package - 2001 - 2006
  • EMRA: East Midlands Regional Assembly, Education for Sustainable Development - 2002 - 2003
  • SDC: dCARB-uk - 2002 - 2003
  • EPSRC: Activity Based Future Energy Scenarios for the decisions makers of tomorrow - 2002 - 2004
  • EPSRC Supergen: Sustainable evolution of the UK electricity supply network - 2003 - 2007
  • EPSRC: Global Village 2006; Young People and Environmental Sustainability - 2005 - 2007
  • EPSRC Building schools for a sustainable future - 2005 - 2006
  • HEIF Regional Fellowship in Communicating Energy - 2006 - 2007
  • HEIF regional fellowship in energy data analysis - 2006 - 2007
  • DEFRA Climate Challenge Fund, Evaluation of the C-Change project - 2006 --2008
  • EPSRC The Renewables Roadshow - 2007 - 2009
  • Pilkington Energy Efficiency Trust, Climate Mobile evaluation - 2007 -2008
  • Woodcraft Folk: Edinburgh Powerpod Evaluation - 2007 - 2009
  • EU Intelligent Energy Europe, Automated Intelligent Metering for SMES - 2007 - 2009
  • EU Intelligent Energy Europe, CYBER-Display - 2008 - 2011
  • EPSRC Engaging pupils teachers and governors in the science, engineering and technology of “carbon neutral” schools - 2009 - 2011
  • Sustainable Construction iNET, Thermographic imaging and monitoring of small businesses and schools (£40k) - 2009 - 2009
  • EPSRC, Face Your Elephant; Engaging Festival Goers in the Science and Engineering of reducing their Carbon Footprint - 2009 - 2011
  • Knowledge Transfer Partnership,) Design of carbon neutral schools 2009 – 2012
  • EPSRC, The Carbon Game - 2010 - 2010
  • EU, Smart Spaces - 2012 - 2015
  • Knowledge Exchange Partnership, Low carbon Schools - 2012 - 2015
  • EPSRC, Goodee2ds - 2012 – 2014

Professional esteem indicators

Professor Fleming has worked internationally with the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives and the German Marshall Fund of the United States of America. He also worked for the OECD in the preparation of their publication Urban Energy Management; a handbook of good local practice At the European level, he contributes to the Energy Cities network of environmentally and energy conscious cities. He has made presentations at many national and international conferences. He was the academic lead on a DTI Global Watch Mission to Canada to look at Canadian examples of implementing measures to achieve deep cuts in carbon emissions.

He is a member of the EPSRC Peer Review College, a member of the Research Committee of the UK Energy Research Centre and Chaired the peer review panel of the DECC Energy Analysis Research Programme. He is a reviewer for several journals, (including the IMechE, Local Environment, Building and the Environment and Journal of Environmental Research) and is a member of the editorial board of the International Journal of Sustainable Energy

He is a member of the EPSRC Peer Review College, member of EPSRC prioritisation panels, was a “state of science” peer reviewer for the Foresight and is an external referee for several journals (including Energy Policy, IMechE, Local Environment, Building and the Environment, Journal of Environmental Research, Cities, and International Journal of Sustainable Energy). He has reviewed proposals for ESRC, LARCI, and Scottish Office, Leverhulme, and British Council)

At the Regional level he was chair of the East Midlands Energy Group, a Member of the Overview and Scrutiny Panel for the East Midlands Regional Assembly review of the energy work of the East Midlands Development Agency. He was a member of the Overview and Scrutiny Panels looking at combine heat and power and also building school for the future. He is a member of the Leicester City Mayor’ s City Partnership and Chairs the Environment Group, that brings together public private and voluntary sectors experts to advise on the implementation of Leicester a low carbon city policies.

Paul-Fleming

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