Professor Mark Lemon

Job: Professor of Integrated Environmental Systems

Faculty: Technology

School/department: School of Engineering and Sustainable Development

Research group(s): Institute of Energy and Sustainable Development (IESD)

Address: IESD, Queens Building, De Montfort University, Leicester, LE1 9BH UK

T: +44 (0)116 257 7977

E: mlemon@dmu.ac.uk

W: https://www.dmu.ac.uk/research/centres-institutes/iesd/index.aspx

 

Publications and outputs 

  • Carbon Management Planning in UK Universities: A Journey to Low Carbon Built Environment
    Carbon Management Planning in UK Universities: A Journey to Low Carbon Built Environment Mazhar, Muhammad; Bull, R.; Lemon, Mark; Ahmad, S. B. S. Climate change and increasing carbon emissions are the biggest challenges for the modern world. Organisations are facing increasing pressure from governments and stakeholders to reduce carbon emissions. The Higher Education (HE) sector has a huge environmental, social and economic impact. In 2012–13, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) consumed 7.9 billion kWh of energy and emitted 2.3 million tonnes of carbon emissions, which strengthens the role of universities in implementing carbon management for a low carbon built environment. The HE sector is not exempt from implementing carbon management strategies and respond to the UK government’s Climate Change Act by developing its own targets in England, which are in line with the national targets—80% reduction by 2050 and 34% by 2020 from the 1990 baseline. This indicates the scale of the challenge to implement carbon management through effective planning procedures. The aim of this paper is to explore the key elements of the carbon management planning process in UK universities and identify potential areas of improvements. This exploratory study adopted a qualitative and inductive research approach. The data were collected through the content analysis of eighteen universities’ carbon management plans (CMPs). The study found that key elements of carbon management planning are senior management leadership, carbon footprinting, carbon reduction targets, stakeholder engagement, funding and resources, governance and evaluation and reporting. Universities have shown policy commitment and developed CMPs for implementation, but the performance of universities varies significantly. There is also a disconnect between planning and delivery. The findings of this research show that CMPs can be valuable tools to assist universities in their carbon management journey. However, weaknesses are identified in the current design of CMPs, for example, overly focusing on the technical issues of carbon management (to the detriment of socio-technical factors), unsupportive of stakeholder engagement, not aligned with core policies and strategies and being static documents. CMPs are not comprehensive with regard to the operational boundary of carbon emissions and need standard approach for measuring, targeting and reporting. This study will be useful to academics and practitioners aiming to improve carbon management planning in universities and other organisations.
  • Using the LM3 method to evaluate economic impacts of an on-line retailer of local food in an English market town
    Using the LM3 method to evaluate economic impacts of an on-line retailer of local food in an English market town Mitchell, Andrew; Lemon, Mark The paper presents a case study of an on-line retailer of locally-sourced food and drink to explore its local economic impacts on an English East Midland market town. The analysis is based on the LM3 survey method which tracks the value of an investment for a local economic area. While the findings suggest a positive impact, the reliability of third round data is disputed, and generates approximations rather than precise indicators of added economic value. In acknowledgement of this limitation, two approaches to working with round three data are compared. The paper concludes with recommendations for using this method in future research, as well as suggestions that might inform the development of a local or regional sustainable and resilient economic development policy framework. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • What’s being tested and what’s being learnt? A contribution to lessons learned evaluation methods for community-based sustainability initiatives.
    What’s being tested and what’s being learnt? A contribution to lessons learned evaluation methods for community-based sustainability initiatives. Mitchell, Andrew; Lemon, Mark What’s being tested and what’s being learnt? A contribution to lessons learned evaluation methods for community-based sustainability initiatives. Abstract: Aim: There is little good practice guidance with respect to methods and skills for conducting lessons learned evaluations of community-based development projects. In this paper we utilise a mixed methods approach to evaluate the lessons learned by the team members and stakeholders of a funded five year ‘test-and-learn’ UK-based sustainability initiative. The approach combines a statistical and a qualitative thematic analysis of transcribed textual data and presents an analytic framework with which to track the lessons learned by community development projects. Design/ Research methods: A mixed methods approach combining text and sentiment mining complemented by a qualitative thematic analysis is applied to the same data collected from stakeholder responses to an on-line survey and the transcribed audio recordings of four focus groups in which stakeholders participated. Conclusions/ findings: Employing replicable tools, augmented by qualitative research methods, provide a framework for a systematic approach to elicit and capture lessons learned by a sustainable community development project. These bear on how project activities, from engagement to supporting the local food economy, have been experienced by stakeholders and their learning acquired over the course of the project. Implications for future project design and funding options are considered. Originality/ value of the article: Despite the evident value of its contribution to improving project design and funding options, the evaluation of lessons learned in community-based sustainability work remains under-researched. The novel combination of text and sentiment mining techniques with more traditional qualitative thematic analysis on the same data offers an original contribution to research in this field. JEL: R58, Q01, Z18
  • Reconfiguring Household Management in Times of Discontinuity as an Open System: The Case of Agro-food Chains
    Reconfiguring Household Management in Times of Discontinuity as an Open System: The Case of Agro-food Chains Sajeva, Maurizio; Mitchell, Andrew; Lemon, Mark This article is based upon a heterodox approach to economics that rejects the oversimplification made by closed economic models and the mainstream concept of ‘externality.’ This approach re-imagines economics as a holistic evaluation of resources versus human needs, which requires judgement based on understanding of the complexity generated by the dynamic relations between different systems. One re-imagining of the economic model is as a holistic and systemic evaluation of agri-food systems’ sustainability that was performed through the multi-dimensional Governance Assessment Matrix Exercise (GAME). This is based on the five capitals model of sustainability, and the translation of qualitative evaluations into quantitative scores. This is based on the triangulation of big data from a variety of sources. To represent quantitative interactions, this article proposes a provisional translation of GAME’s qualitative evaluation into a quantitative form through the identification of measurement units that can reflect the different capital dimensions. For instance, a post-normal, ecological accounting method, Emergy is proposed to evaluate the natural capital. The revised GAME re-imagines economics not as the ‘dismal science,’ but as one that has potential leverage for positive, adaptive and sustainable ecosystemic analyses and global ‘household’ management. This article proposes an explicit recognition of economics nested within the social spheres of human and social capital which are in turn nested within the ecological capital upon which all life rests and is truly the bottom line. In this article, the authors make reference to an on-line retailer of local food and drink to illustrate the methods for evaluation of the five capitals model. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • Moving on from CODES - The keystones for a whole systems approach to low carbon schools
    Moving on from CODES - The keystones for a whole systems approach to low carbon schools Fleming, M.; Lemon, Mark Moves towards reducing the carbon footprint of new buildings require a new way of thinking. Design research suggests that the development of more innovative and sustainable solutions increasingly highlight the benefits arising from the integration and participation of multiple actors with a wide range of technical and contextual knowledge and expertise. The need to address complex problems more systematically has escalated the importance of cross-disciplinary collaborations and partnerships between stakeholders (Coley and Lemon, 2009). It is also becoming more widely accepted that the inter-connected dynamics of a system’s component parts is what determines its complexity suggesting that a holistic approach to problem solving cannot always rely on conventional methods. A mechanical problem is typically broken down into its parts before being able to systematically solve the problem piece by piece. Whilst this is powerful for some problems, and often requires extensive knowledge that aligns with the complicatedness of the task, complex issues, invariably involving people and their relationship with other actors (not necessarily human), do not lend themselves to such a reductionist approach. The design and subsequent operation of a school is one such complex phenomenon that requires a holistic approach which acknowledges the process of continual change that emerges from these interrelationships and patterns (Anarow, Greener et.al., 2003); it also requires collaboration, partnership and trust. This chapter will return to the Keystones on School Community Collaboration that emerged from the ENSI-CoDeS project (Collaboration of schools and communities for Sustainable Development, 2011-2014) and are summarised and reflected upon, with examples, in Espinet and Zachariou (2014). It will focus on the continuation of city based collaborations in the UK (Leicester)that were designed to ensure that the legacy of the Building Schools for the Future (BSF) Programme was one of enhanced sustainability facilitated through collaboration and partnership. The next section will summarise the BSF programme and will introduce the projects that will be considered alongside the CoDeS Keystones. The Keystones will then be introduced alongside examples derived from the projects and a final concluding section will explore what these projects and the Keystone concepts might tell us about the generic capabilities that have been introduced above and might underpin such collaboration in very different contexts.
  • The Misalignment of Policy and Practice in Sustainable Urban Design
    The Misalignment of Policy and Practice in Sustainable Urban Design Crilly, M.; Lemon, Mark The urban renaissance that took place in major UK cities during the late 1990’s was seen as a response to counter-urbanisation and inner city decline. This chapter will argue that there has been an implementation gap between the intent of urban design policy and its impact on the ground. Drawing upon the experiences of the lead author as an urban designer in the North-East of England over this period, the text will present examples of the unforeseen consequences that have accompanied the policy trajectory of sustainability and quality within the built environment, specifically looking at a move towards community-led development away from centralisation, by passing local government in the process. The chapter will examine how this urban renaissance has emerged through policies focused on the renewal of the housing market and more sustainable communities (e.g. HMR Pathfinder) to the creation of the Big Society with devolved services and funding, initiatives aimed at individual households (e.g. the Green Deal) and stakeholder engagement. In analysing this policy journey the chapter will consider why demolition and new build invariably occurred instead of refurbishment and community development; why the accepted need for evidence largely ignored qualitative and anecdotal insight from local communities and why end state planning was pursued in preference to the need for a more adaptive and dynamic process.
  • Critical success factors for embedding carbon management in organisations: Lessons from the UK higher education sector.
    Critical success factors for embedding carbon management in organisations: Lessons from the UK higher education sector. Mahzar, Muhammad; Bull, R.; Lemon, Mark Organizations are under increasing pressure from governments and stakeholders to reduce carbon emissions from their business operations for climate change mitigation. Universities are not exempt from this challenge and are operating in a complex external environment, not least responding to the UK government’s Climate Change Act 2008 (80% carbon reductions by 2050 as per 1990 baseline). In 2012–2013, the UK Higher Education (HE) sector consumed 7.9 billion kWh of energy and produced 2.3 million tonnes of carbon emissions. This indicates the scale of the challenge and carbon management is central to reduce carbon emissions. However, effective processes for implementing and embedding carbon management in organizations in general, and universities in particular, have yet to be realized. This paper explores the critical success factors (CSFs) for embedding carbon management in universities and, more widely, in organizations. This exploratory study adopted a mixed-methods approach including the content analysis of universities’ carbon management plans alongside semi-structured interviews in the UK HE sector. The paper identifies six key factors for successfully embedding carbon management that are pertinent not just for the HE sector, but to organizations broadly: senior management leadership; funding and resources; stakeholder engagement; planning; governance and management; and evaluation and reporting. open access article
  • Governance for food security. A framework for social learning and scenario building
    Governance for food security. A framework for social learning and scenario building Sajeva, M.; Lemon, Mark; Sahota, P. Food security is one of the greatest challenges that characterises our times. One central argument in related conferences and symposia is the need to increase production for a growing population. However, major international organisations and other research institutions hold instead that food production exceeds current need and the reasons of food insecurity reside more in the complex concurrence and interdependence of poverty, access to food, local economic development and political and socioeconomic circumstances. Governance for sustainability is presented in this article as a process of multidisciplinary and participatory social learning about these interdependences, both general criteria and the context-based practices to which decision-makers are accountable. In order to reflect this approach a ‘GAME' (Governance Assessment Matrix Exercise) methodology and framework is developed to inform more evidence-based and accountable decision making The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link
  • How can the process of adopting energy management in organisations inform water management practice?
    How can the process of adopting energy management in organisations inform water management practice? Bull, R.; Lemon, Mark; Perry, D.; Azennoud, M. Energy and water are interconnected natural resources and are vital utilities utilised by organisations to enable their business delivery. Managing these resources within the United Kingdom ‘UK’ is currently focused on energy management with a small or neglected focus on water management in non-domestic buildings. This paper explores, through an overview of energy management policy, energy management practice, the water market and supported by a case study, the reasons for which the adoption of energy management should be encouraged in order to stimulate greater water management activity amongst organisations. The case study of Northamptonshire County Council is presented in order to illustrate energy management and water management activity in a high performing ISO50001:2011 organisation, demonstrating the authority’s current approach to implementing water management and water efficiency projects. Results of this study show that, first, water management can be linked to energy management via the low emissions target for the UK. Second, that the lessons learned from the adoption of energy management by organisations are transferrable, and support a wider adoption of water management: i.e. policy enforcement, funding opportunities for water efficiency projects, etc. This is an Open Access journal.
  • Smart energy management for non-domestic buildings: Case studies of two local authorities in the UK
    Smart energy management for non-domestic buildings: Case studies of two local authorities in the UK Azzenoud, Marouane; Stuart, Graeme; Bull, R.; Lemon, Mark; Perry, D. The use of smart meters has increased since the beginning of the 21st century. The UK government, for example, has recently initiated a programme of rolling out 53 million smart electricity and gas meters for homes and small businesses by 2020 with the expectation that €20 billion will be saved on energy bills over the coming 15 years. The UK’s mass deployment of smart meters has resulted in Local Authorities experiencing additional costs from their installation in their non-domestic buildings, including the costs of new data collection and reporting systems. As a consequence, energy managers are increasingly being forced to consider the ideal frequency for collecting and reporting energy data, appropriate methods for processing that data and the need to rely on ‘real-time’ energy data when there are several other ways in which energy data can be accessed (bills, direct readings, etc.). Finally, what are the realistic expectations about the financial savings attributable to the installation of smart meters? This paper seeks to address these questions through two case studies which examine the effects of the smart meter roll-out programme on two separate UK Local Authorities, Northamptonshire County Council and Leicester City Council.

Click here to view a full listing of Mark Lemon's publications and outputs.

Research interests/expertise

Systems thinking and education for sustainability, integrated environmental systems, integrative methods and transdisciplinary skills; modern methods of construction; trust and knowledge in socio-technical systems.

Areas of teaching

Research methods

Resource Use and Pollution

Resource Efficient Design

Systems and sustainable development

Qualifications

BA (Hons) Sussex University (1973)

PhD Cranfield institute of Technology (1991)

Courses taught

Masters by Research

MSc Climate Change and Sustainable Development

MSc Industrial Sustainability

BSc. Energy and Sustainability Management

Contributions to various cross-campus courses

Membership of external committees

Faculty of Technology Ethics Committee

University Research Training Committee

Membership of professional associations and societies

Fellow of Higher Education Academy (FHEA) 1994

Conference attendance

McCain, H., Lemon, M. and Ford, P. (2009), Enhancing the Receptivity and Skills of Designers and Product Planners to Environmentally-Considered Product Development, International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education, 10 & 11 September 2009, University of Brighton.

McCain, H. and Lemon, M. (2009) Sector Comparisons in the Adoption of Eco-Design: Product Development and Retail Design SME’s. , UK Sustainable Innovation 09, Towards a Low Carbon Innovation Revolution, 26th - 27th October 2009, Farnham Castle, UK

Finnigan, T. Lemon, M. Allen, B. and Paton, I. (2010) Mycoprotein, Life Cycle Analysis and the Food 2030 Challenge, Delivering Food Security with Supply Chain Led Innovations: understanding supply chains, providing food security, delivering choice, Royal Holloway, Egham, UK 7-9th Sept.

Finnigan, T. Lemon, M. Allen, B. and Paton, I. (2010) A scoping study towards an LCA for QuornTM mince,  V11 International Conference on on Life Cycle Assessment in the Food Sector, Bari 22-24th September

Cook, D., Lemon, M. And Reeves, A. (2011) Hurdles on the way to the starting gate – the going’s good as long as we don’t fall at the water jump:  a 3rd sector organisation delivering in partnership with local authorities, KTP Associates Conference Brighton, May.

Reeves, A. Lemon, M., and Cook, D. (2011), Local support for community action on climate change: lessons from the Communities Cutting Carbon project, KTP Associates Conference Brighton, May.

Gill, D. Wright, L. And Lemon M. (2011) Corporate Social Responsibility and Branding with Web Forum Research in the Retail Food and Drinks Sector” at the 7th International Conference of Brand, Identity and Corporate Reputation, Academy of Marketing Special Interest Group, Said Business School, University of Oxford, 6-8 April.

Gill, D. Wright, L. And Lemon M. (2011) “Brand Communications and CSR”, Academy of Marketing, Marketing Fields Forever conference, Liverpool University, 4th July

Consultancy work

Marlow Foods - Quorn (2009) Life Cycle Assessment of Mycoprotein - (£20,000) (Co-Investigator)

Independent project evaluator on AquaStress (2009) – EU research project (Lisbon)

Advisor toEPSRCResponsive Mode; Design Dialogues: An exploratory study of design narratives, methodologies and tools towards achieving Factor 10 outcomes [GR/S90645/01]. (2008-09)

Environment Agency (2008) Evaluating the effectiveness of risk based decisions in the Environment Agency (Co-Investigator – £70,000)

Expert panel member for BT and Cisco on Corporate Sustainability (2008) White Paper (http://www.connect-world.com/PDFs/white_papers/a_new_mindset_wp_en.pdf)

TSB (2007) Methodology consultant for English Partnerships on Design for Manufacture projects

Yorkshire Forward (2006) Evaluator of Environmental Assets Projects (with CarlBro Consultants) (Principal investigator)

EU (2003) Advisor on qualitative and integrative research methods employed on the EU’s Aquadapt water management project.

EU (2003) Advisor on the use of qualitative and action research undertaken for understanding Social Exclusion and Learning with Newcastle, Gateshead, Rotterdam and Malmo Councils

Health and Safety Executive (2003) Human factors and organisational culture advisor to an HSE project on Distributive Cognition and offshore accidents.  With Bath University (Co-investigator)

Victim Care (2001-02) Evaluator for the Youth Justice Board on the implications for Restorative Justice of the Milton Keynes Victim Care Project

EMTA (2000) Evaluation of the options for personal development among NVQ trainers and assessors (Engineering and Marine Training Association) (Principal Investigator - £6,000)

Lafarge Aggregates (2000) Evaluation of the potential responses to the learning requirements of call centre staff, particularly at the interface with technical personnel (Principal Investigator - £10,000)

Current research students

Quality management in Libyan Secondary Schools - Hania Ali (2013, ft, 1st supervisor)

Technology transfer and clean water – a case study of Ghana - Dzokoto Seth Theodore Kwasi (2012, f/t, 2nd supervisor)

-A Systems Analysis and Development of the Potentials of Local Renewable Energy Systems For Rural Services in Nigeria - Onasanya Mobolaji (2011, f/t 2nd supervisor)

Social media and local economic development in Niger - Sidiki Diakite (2009, p/t 1st supervisor)

Community engagement and energy efficient households - Andy Stephenson (2008 p/t, 1st supervisor)

Evaluation and transition towns - Andy Mitchell (2013 f/t 1st supervisor)

Low cost housing in VietNam - Matt Parks (2014 p/t 1st supervisor)

Specialist banks and local economic development in environmentally vulnerable areas Abdo Hamed - (2015 f/t 1st supervisor)

Multi-national use of local resources: ensuring resilience in the Niger Delta Ashiedu Joel - (2015 f/t 1st supervisor)

Smart Cities and energy management Marouane Azenoude – (2015 f/t 1st supervisor)

Externally funded research grants information

DEFRA Football as a conduit for pre-environmental behaviour £151,000 (PI) – Project delayed due to DEFRA funding strategy – with Leicester City Football Club and Leicestershire and Rutland Football Association

EPSRC Reduction of Energy Demand in Buildings through Optimal Use of Wireless Behaviour Information (Wi-be) Systems (CI) £500,000 – with Nottingham University and Queen Mary College, London 2010 – 2012

EPSRC Complexity and Energy programme (CASCADE) £1,200,000 (CI) – with Cranfield University 2009 - 2012

Knowledge Transfer Partnership KTP – Communicating Climate Change with Rural Community Council (2010-12) PI

Knowledge Transfer Partnership KTP – Sustainable strategies in hospitals (2011-13) CI with Scarborough Hospital Trust

TSB Retrofit with East Midlands Housing Association, Newcastle City Council (Phase 1) with Newcastle City Council and East Midlands Housing Group

TSB Retrofit with East Midlands Housing Association, Newcastle City Council (Phase 2) with Newcastle City Council and East Midlands Housing Group

UKERC Incluesev network (2011) Funding for workshop and reports on the role of retrofit in addressing the gap between social housing and energy poverty (£5,000) (PI)

Construction INet (2011) Mass Customisation to Retrofit UK Housing (CI) (£75000)

Internally funded research project information

Co-ordinator of IESD contribution to the Square Mile Project and the ‘Living Lab’.

Professional esteem indicators

Independent project evaluator on AquaStress (2009) – EU research project (Lisbon).

Advisor toEPSRCResponsive Mode; Design Dialogues: An exploratory study of design narratives, methodologies and tools towards achieving Factor 10 outcomes. (2008-09).

Expert panel member for BT and Cisco on Corporate Sustainability (2008) White Paper (http:/www.connect-world.com/PDFs/white_papers/a_new_mindset_wp_en.pdf). 

TSB (2007) Methodology consultant for English Partnerships on Design for Manufacture projects.

External PhD Examiner: Cranfield, Newcastle, Manchester Metropolitan, Coventry, Alicante universities.

Associate Editor: Environmental Sciences – Journal of Integrative Environmental Research and Design Principles and Practices.

Reviewer for among others International Journal of Sustainable Development, British Academy of Management, Environment International, Technovation, Environmental Sciences, Waste Management Research, The Environmentalist, Team Performance and Management, FQS, Building Research and Information, Journal of Integrative Environmental Research and Design Principles and Practices.

Visiting Professor of Sustainable Development at University Campus Suffolk.

External reviewer for the the School of Environment, Development and International Studies (EDIS) at the Open University.

Ongoing Research Projects

Internal HEIF project Transformative learning for the public good – an integrative approach to sustainable community development (£20,000, Principal Investigator)

KTP – Towards a more energy efficient asset management strategy with emhhomes (£126,000 Principal Investigator) continuation from the earlier KEP

Big Lottery funded Sustainable Harborough, (£57,000 to DMU Principal Investigator)

Completed Research Projects

British Council – Newton Fund (Completed 2016) Co-design for low cost low energy housing: A comparison between the UK and Peru. (£30,000 Principal investigator)

GoodDee2ds: (completed 2015) Digitally engaging & empowering employees for energy demand reduction (£180,000 Co-Investigator)

EU funded CoDes (completed 2015) Education for Sustainable Development (Principal investigator)

EU funded Eracobuild project (completed 2013) on the development of an integrated method for evaluating energy efficiency in domestic dwellings – with Parity Projects (Principal investigator);

Chesshire Lehman (2015) energy and the voluntary sector (£5,000 Co-investigator)

HEIF funded KEP project with East Midlands Housing Group (2012) Towards a new business strategy for low carbon social housing (Lead academic) (£126,000, Principal investigator)

Knowledge Transfer Partnership KTP (2010) – Communicating Climate Change (Lead academic) with Leicestershire and Rutland Rural Community Council (£126,000 Principal investigator).

KTP – (2011) Sustainable energy and water systems - Trust (£126,000 Co-Investigator) with Scarborough Hospital

UKERC Incluesev network (2011) Funding for workshop and reports on the role of retrofit in addressing the gap between social housing and energy poverty (£5,000 Principal investigator)

EPSRC – (2010 - 2012) Reduction of Energy Demand in Buildings through Optimal Use of Wireless Behaviour Information (Wi-be) Systems (£597,000 Co-investigator).

EPSRC (2010 - 2013) Complex Adaptive Systems, Cognitive Agents and Distributed Energy (CASCADE) (£1,200,000 Co-investigator).

Construction INet (2011) Mass Customisation to Retrofit UK Housing (£75000, Co-Investigator)

TSB Retrofit (2010) Two projects with East Midlands Housing Association and Newcastle City Council (Phase 2) (Co-Investigator)

TSB Retrofit (2010) Two projects with East Midlands Housing Association, Newcastle City Council (Phase 1) (Co-Investigator).

EU – Asia Link (2008) MI-EIS - Management and implementation of enterprise information systems (China, Netherland and UK University partners) 

EPSRC (2007) Awareness and understanding of complexity science principles for real world research EP/DO33667/1 (final report tending to outstanding) (£70,000) (Co-Investigator)

Lead (PI) on three ESRC PhD Case awards (2000-07)

BT (2000) Exploration of different cultural archetypes - organisational ‘shapes’ - for undertaking Research and Development (Principal Investigator)

BT (2000) Visiting research fellow investigating organisational culture, rules and measures as they affect customer service (Principal Investigator - £3,000)

EU (1996-00) Policy relevant models of the Natural and Anthropogenic Dynamics and their Spatio-Temporal Manifestations (Env4-CT95-0159 Archaeomedes II)

EU (1996-98) Environmental Response of Mediterranean Systems (Env4-CT95-0181 ERMES II)

EU (1998) New competencies for sustainable tourism in natural protected areas: a case study of the Peak Park. (Leonardo) (Principal Investigator - £7,000)

EU (1995-96) Cultural and Natural Heritage – Environmental Perception and Policy Making (EV5V-CT94-0846 EPPM)

EU (1991-94) Understanding natural and anthropogenic causes of desertification in the Southern Mediterranean (EV5V-0021 Archaeomedes I)

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