Dr Roshan Rai

Job: Senior Lecturer

Faculty: Health and Life Sciences

School/department: School of Applied Social Sciences

Address: De Montfort, University, The Gateway, Leicester, LE1 9BH.

T: +44 (0)116 257 7737

E: rrai@dmu.ac.uk

W: www.dmu.ac.uk/hls

 

Personal profile

Dr Rai's research interests revolve around the following topics:

1. Social Cognition: this research area falls into two broad areas: a. How people understand the social world, including phenomenon like the illusion of transparency, and b. The development of social cognition and theory of mind through childhood and adolescence.

2. Cyberpsychology: Of primary interest is how the Internet influences people socially, including how people interact using computer-mediated-communication, cyberbullying, and how the Internet affects people's materialistic values. Other interests include the effects the Internet has on psychological well-being. 

Research group affiliations

Social, Personality and Cultural Psychology

Psychology and Technology

Publications and outputs 

  • Materialistic values, brand knowledge and the mass media: Hours spent on the Internet predicts materialistic values and brand knowledge
    Materialistic values, brand knowledge and the mass media: Hours spent on the Internet predicts materialistic values and brand knowledge Rai, Roshan; Chauhan, C.; Cheng, M. Materialism can be seen as the importance people attached to material goods, as well as the belief in the desirable symbolic importance goods have (e.g., to status, human happiness etc.). And the media has often been associated with materialistic values. The current study investigates the relationship between some traditional forms of mass media (television, newspapers and magazines), and a newer form of mass media: the Internet. Using self-report measures, 195 participants indicated how many hours a day they spent watching television, reading newspapers/magazines, and using the Internet. It was found that hours spent using the Internet was positively associated with materialistic values as measured by the Aspiration Index. Using a more concrete task, hours spent using the Internet and materialistic values were significantly predictors of participants’ ability to identify brand logos. This provides evidence that materialistic values, as well as specific knowledge of brands, can be associated to Internet usage. Perhaps surprisingly, however, television viewing was negatively associated with materialistic values. In the current research, the Internet (a newer form of mass media) was more strongly associated with greater materialistic values and the ability to identify brand logos than older forms of mass media. The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.
  • User Reactions to Failures and Frustrations within Cyber Environments – Systematic Coding of Previous Work (URM Coding)
    User Reactions to Failures and Frustrations within Cyber Environments – Systematic Coding of Previous Work (URM Coding) Scase, M. O.; Hadlington, L. J.; Rai, Roshan
  • Users Reactions to Failures and Frustrations Within Cyber Environments – Literature Review Update
    Users Reactions to Failures and Frustrations Within Cyber Environments – Literature Review Update Scase, M. O.; Hadlington, L. J.; Rai, Roshan; Westmacott, M.; Turner, C.
  • Egocentrism and cyberbullying: Imaginary audience and personal fable ideation predict cyberbullying and cyber victimisation in adolescents and emerging adults.
    Egocentrism and cyberbullying: Imaginary audience and personal fable ideation predict cyberbullying and cyber victimisation in adolescents and emerging adults. Rai, Roshan; Smith, Emily; Svirydzenka, N. Egocentrism and cyberbullying: Imaginary audience and personal fable ideation predict cyberbullying and cyber victimisation in adolescents and emerging adults. Objectives: The imaginary audience and personal fable, or the egocentric beliefs in being the centre-of-attention and special respectively, are prominent in adolescence and emerging adulthood. The main focus of this research is to determine whether egocentric beliefs are associated with engaging in cyberbullying behaviour or being a victim of cyberbullying. Furthermore, the research also aimed to determine whether cyberbullying and victim behaviour differed according to age. Design: The study employed a cross-sectional questionnaire-based design, investigating whether cyberbullying behaviour or perceived cyber victimisation could be predicted from the imaginary audience, personal fable, and age. Methods: Fifty-two 14-15 year olds (attending school) and fifty 18-25 year olds (attending University) completed questionnaires measuring cyberbullying and cyber victim behaviour, the personal fable, the imaginary audience, and basic demographic information. Results: Multiple regression analysis showed that imaginary audience (β=.355, t(101)=3.97, p<.001), and age (β=.249, t(101)=2.80, p=.006) positively predicted cyberbullying behaviour. Cyber victim behaviour was positively predicted by the imaginary audience (β=.369, t(101)=3.98, p<.001) and negatively predicted by the personal fable (β=-.238, t(101)=-2.57, p=.012). Independent samples t-tests confirmed that emerging adults cyberbullied more than adolescents (t(100)= -2.32, p=.022; emerging adult mean = 6.58, adolescent mean = 4.50). Conclusions: Those higher in imaginary audience reported higher levels of both cyber victim and cyberbullying behaviour, whilst those higher in personal fable reported being a victim of cyberbullying less. Perhaps surprisingly, emerging adults cyber bullied more than adolescents. Aspects of developmental change, specifically egocentric ideation, could have importance to cyberbullying perpetration and victimisation.
  • Turned On, Tuned In, Dropped Out:The Impact of Ever Present Technology on Human Behaviour and Decision Making.
    Turned On, Tuned In, Dropped Out:The Impact of Ever Present Technology on Human Behaviour and Decision Making. Scase, M. O.; Hadlington, L. J.; Rai, Roshan
  • Adolescent Egocentrism and the Illusion of Transparency: Are Adolescents as Egocentric as we Might Think?
    Adolescent Egocentrism and the Illusion of Transparency: Are Adolescents as Egocentric as we Might Think? Rai, Roshan; Mitchell, Peter; Kadar, Tasleem; Mackenzie, Laura The illusion of transparency, or people’s tendency to believe their thoughts and feelings as more apparent to others than they actually are, was used to investigate adolescent egocentrism. Contrary to previous research demonstrating heightened adolescent egocentrism, adolescents exhibited similar levels of egocentrism to adults. In experiment 1, 13-14 year-olds and adult participants both truthfully described and lied about a series of pictures. Both adolescent and adult liars indicated that they were more confident that other participants would know when they were lying, than other participants actually indicated. In experiment 2, 13-14 year-olds, 15-16 year-olds and adult participants read to an audience. The illusion of transparency effect manifested itself differently according to gender: Female participants indicating that they looked more nervous than audiences thought, whilst male participants indicating that they were more entertaining than audiences thought. Results were interpreted using simulation theory, and suggested that adolescents might not be as egocentric as previously thought.
  • The illusion-of-transparency and episodic memory: are people egocentric or do people think lies are easy to detect?
    The illusion-of-transparency and episodic memory: are people egocentric or do people think lies are easy to detect? Rai, Roshan; Mitchell, Peter; Faelling, Joanne The illusion-of-transparency seems like an egocentric bias, in which people believe that their inner feelings, thoughts and perspectives are more apparent to others than they actually are. In Experiment 1, participants read out true and false episodic memories to an audience. Participants overestimated the number of people who would think that they were the liar, and they overestimated how many would correctly identify the liar. Experiment 2 found that with lessened task demands, and by using a scale of doubt, participants distinguished lies from truthful statements (albeit with a degree of error). Over the two experiments, results indicated that people have some ability to distinguish lies from truth (in illusion-of-transparency tasks), although people often overestimate this ability, and participants sometimes think their own lies are easier to detect than is really the case. Invovled a colloboration with an academic from the University of Notingham, Malaysian Campus.
  • Five-year-old children’s ability to impute inferentially-based knowledge.
    Five-year-old children’s ability to impute inferentially-based knowledge. Rai, Roshan; Mitchell, Peter
  • Five-year-old children's difficulty with false belief when the sought entity is a person.
    Five-year-old children's difficulty with false belief when the sought entity is a person. Rai, Roshan; Mitchell, Peter

Click here for a full listing of Roshan Rai‘s publications and outputs.

Key research outputs

 

Research interests/expertise

Social Cognition

The development of social cognition and theory of mind through childhood and adolescence

Cyberpsychology

Psychological Well-being

Areas of teaching

Developmental Psychology

Cyberpsychology

Historical Perspectives in Psychology

Psychological Well-being (MSc)

 

Conference attendance

Rai, R. & Mitchell, P (2001). The animate-being false belief task. Paper presented at the Psychology Postgraduates Affair Group Conference, Sheffield, U.K.

Rai, R. & Mitchell, P. (2002). The animate-being false belief task. Paper presented at the British Psychological Society Developmental Section Conference, 5-8 September, Brighton, U.K.

Rai, R. & Mitchell, P. (2003). The animate-being true and false belief tasks. Paper presented at the British Psychological Society Developmental Section Conference, 10-13 September, Coventry, U.K.

Rai, R. & Mitchell, P. (2005). Inference by elimination, syllogistic inference, and the cartoon character inference task. Paper presented at the British Psychological Society Developmental Section Conference, 5-8 September, Edinburgh, U.K.

De Lillo, C., Rai, R., & Storer, L. (2006). Spatial working memory capacity for structured and unstructured tapping sequences in children. Paper presented at the British Psychological Society Developmental Section Conference, 7-9 September, London, U.K.

De Lillo, C., Rai, R., & Storer, L. (2007). A developmental analysis of spatial working memory capacity for structured and unstructured Corsi sequences. Paper presented at the Experimental Psychology Society Meeting, 4-5 January, London, U.K.

Rai, R. Widdowson, J., & Mitchell, P. (2008). Do people think that it is easy to tell when somebody if lying? The illusion of transparency and episodic memory. Paper presented at the International Investigative Interviewing Research Group, Derby, U.K.

Rai, R., Widdowson, J., & Mitchell, P. (2010). The illusion of transparency: are people egocentric or do people think lies are easy to detect? Paper presented at ASEAN Regional Union of Psychological Societies (3rd Congress), 2-3 October Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Rai, R. & Attrill, A. (2014). Representations of the Self and Personality: Who is more likely to use Video Communication Online? Poster presented at the 16th International Conference on Human Computer Interaction, 22-27 June, Crete, Greece.

Rai, R., Mitchell, M., Herrick, C, & Patel, M. (2015). Human egocentrism: Levels of personal fable and its relationship with the illusion of transparency and the self-serving bias. Paper presented at the British Psychological Society Social/Developmental Section Conference, 9-11 September, Manchester U.K.

Rai, R. & Attrill, A. (2015). Egocentrism and computer-mediated-communication: The illusion of transparency and its effects when communicating over instant messaging, video, and face-to-face. Poster presented at the Social Networking in Cyberspace Conference, 3 September, Wolverhampton, U.K.

Rai, R., Kessling, S., & Billing, N. (2016). Egocentrism and psychological well-being: can the personal fable actually benefit adolescents and emerging adults. Paper presented at the British Psychological Society Developmental Section Conference, 14-16 September, Belfast, U.K.

Rai, R., Smith, E., & Svirydzenka, N. (2017). Egocentrism and cyberbullying: Imaginary audience and personal fable ideation predict cyberbullying and cyber victimisation in adolescents and emerging adults. Paper presented at the British Psychological Society Developmental Section Conference, 13-15 September, Stratford-upon-Avon, U.K.

 

Recent research outputs

 

Externally funded research grants information

£35,935 (Co-Investigator) Defence Science Technology Laboratory, MOD. The Effects of Video as a Medium for Live Communication and Interaction, 2014 (PI: A. Attrill, CIs: R. Rai, M. Whitty).

£29,885 (Co-Investigator) Defence Science Technology Laboratory, MOD. Turned On, Tuned In, Dropped Out: The Impact of Ever Present Technology on Human Behaviour and Decision Making, 2017 (PI: M. Scase, CIs: L. Hadlington, R. Rai).

£29960 (Co-Investigator) Defence Science Technology Laboratory, MOD. User Reactions to Failures and Frustrations Within Cyber Environments, 2018 (PI: M. Scase, CIs: L. Hadlington, R. Rai, C. Turner, M. Westmacott).

£41644 (Co-investigator) Defence and Science Technology Laboratory, MOD. User Reactions to Failures and Frustrations Within Cyber Environments - Systematic Coding of Previous Work (URM Coding), 2018 (PI: M. Scase, L. Hadlington, R. Rai).

Editorial Boards/Reviewing Activities

Dr Rai has reviewed various grant applications and end of award reports for the Economic and Social Research Council. Dr Rai has reviewed papers for various journals, including Current Psychology, the British Journal of Developmental Psychology, and Computers in Human Behavior.

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