Citizen participation in local democracy: A European comparison


The project builds upon the theoretical framework for understanding variations in local participation, developed as part of the ESRC funded Locality Effects project.  This new project is developing a diagnostic tool to help municipalities across Europe examine their current participation structures and activities and analyse where existing strengths and weaknesses are.  In particular, it is testing the CLEAR framework which argues that participation works best where citizens Can participate, Like to participate, are Enable to, are Asked to and are Responded to.

This project 'road tested' the CLEAR framework in 23 municipalities in five countries (Finland, the Netherlands, Norway, Solvakia and Spain).  The results from this road test will allow for an analytical comparison of participation strategies in the five countries.  The outcome will be a generic diagnostic tool available to all European municipalities through the Council of Europe.


Road test in Autumn 2005

Analysis and outputs during 2006


Council of Europe

Steering Committee on Local and Regional Democracy


This is a joint project with Professor Gerry Stoker (IPEG, University of Manchester)

Research team:

Dr Valeria Guarneros

Document Downloads:

CLEAR model   (Revised Version) (Word document)

How was it for you. A report on the CLEAR road test   (Word document)

Guidelines for implementing the CLEAR tool   (Word document)

Comparing participation results from the CLEAR road tests   (Word document)

Council of Europe Road testing the CLEAR main page   (Word document)

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